7 S. sempervirens Dun. Shrubby, twining and climbing; branches herbaceous; lvs. entire, lance-ovate or elliptic, obliquely cordate, obtuse, with a blunt cusp, very smooth and shining; panicles terminal, divaricate, roughish and hairy. - Shrubberies, arbors, etc., hardy South. An elegant climber. Branches cinnamon-colored, glandular. Lvs. thick, of a bright, shining green. Cor. plicate, 6 or 6 times larger than the calyx. † Guiana.
8 S. Carolinense L. Horse Nettle. Sl. and petioles aculeate; Ivs. oblong-ovate, petiolate, strigous, angular-lobate, acute, midvein beneath with a few spines; rac. naked, loose, supra-axillary; berries globous. - Roadsides, etc, N. Y. to Ill. and Ga. A rough weed, 1 - 2f high, armed with straw-colored, scattered prickles. Leaves 4 - 6' by 2 - 3', usually in unequal pairs, with a few large, re-pand lobes or teeth. Flowers white, lateral and terminal. Corolla white, 12 - 15" diam. Berries yellow. Jn.
9 S. Virginianum L. St. erect, prickly; lvs. long-petioled, deeply pinnatifid, lobes angular-sinuate, acute or obtuse, pubescent; petiole and midvein prickly, margins ciliate; rac. leafy, prickly. - Ya. to Car. (Pursh.), Ga. (Feay, Pond.) Plant much branched, 18' to 3f high, bright green, roughish with minute tomentum. Sts. slightly angular. Lvs. 7 to 9-lobed. Cor. 15" broad, pale violet. Anth. 4", linear. Prickles straight, 5" and less, whitish. Jl.
10 S. mammosum L. Apple of Sodom. St. herbaceous, villous, with scattered spines; lvs. roundish-ovate, bubcordate, lobed, both sides aculeate and very villous; berries inversely pear-shaped (mammosa.) - Waste places, roadsides, Car. (Pursh), Ga., Ala. (Montgomery), to La. A woolly, spiny weed, 1 to 3f high. Lvs. about as broad as long, 3 to 7-lobed, paler beneath, armed on the veins with straight spines 3 to 8" long. Cor. violet colored, 5-parted, 12 to 15" diam., soft villous outside. Fr. yellow, at first globular. May, Jn. (S. pumilum Dun., same as S. hirsutum Nutt., is probably a starved form of this species.)
11 S. esculentum Dunal Egg Plant. St. prickly; lvs. ovate, subsinu-ate, downy, prickly; fls. 6 to 9-partcd. - ' An herbaceous, branching plant, about 2f high. The fruit, with which it is heavily laden, consists of egg-shaped berries, from the size of an egg to that of an ordinary water melon, smooth, and of a glossy purple. It is considered wholesome and delicious. Like the tomato, it is cultivated from the seed sown early in warm, dry. and mellow soil, †
β. Fr. smaller, white. - Cultivated for the curiosity of the fruit, which when ripe can scarcely bo distinguished by its appearance from a hen's egg.
3. CAP'SICUM, Tourn. Pepper, [Gr to bite.) Calyx erect, 5-cleft, persistent; cor. rotate, tube very sbort, limb plaited, 5-lobed; anthers connivent; fruit capsular, dry, inflated, 2 to 3-celled; seeds flat, very acrid. - A large genus of herbaceous or shrubby plants, pervaded by a heating, acrid principle. Lvs. often in pairs. Ped. axil-ary, solitary.
C. annuuam L. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. St. herbaceous, angular, branching above; lvs. ovate, acuminate, entire, petiolate, glabrous; ped. smooth; cal. angular, with short, acute lobes; cor. lobes spreading, longer than the stamens; berry oblong or subglobous, red. - India. Cultivated for its fruit, whose stimulant properties are well known. - There are in gardens several varieties in respect to the fruit.
4. NICAN'DRA, Adans. Apple of Peru. (In honor of Nicander, a Greek physician, B. c. 50.) Calyx 5-cleft, 5-angled, the angles compressed, sepals sagittate; corolla campanulate; stamens 5, incurved; berry 3 to 5-celled, enveloped in the persistent calyx. - Peruvian herbs.
N. physaloides Adans. St. herbaceous; lvs. glabrous, ample, ovate-oblong, sinuate, angular; fls. solitary, axillary, on short peduncles; cal. closed, with the angles very acute. - Cultivated in gardens, whence it has strayed into the neighboring fields. It is a large, coarse herb, 2 to 5f high, very branching. Lvs. 4 to 7' long, 2 to 4' wide, decurrent. Cor. slightly lobed, white, with blue spots in the center. Jl. - Sept. § Peru.
5. PHYS'ALIS, L. Ground Cherry. (Gr. a bladder; the inflated calyx inclosing the fruit.) Calyx 5-cleft, persistent, at length ventricous; corolla campanulate-rotate, tube very short, limb obscurely
5-lobcd; stamens 5, connivent; berry globous, inclosed within the inflated, 5-angled, colored calyx. - Herbs (rarely shrubs). Lvs. alternate or unequally twin. Fls. solitary, nodding, extra-axillary. Pubescence of flattened hairs.
§ Anthers yellow. Root (always ?) perennial.................................................................
Nos. 1 - 3
§ Anthers blue or violet-colored, Root annual, (a)
a Peduncles elongated. Fruit not filling the closed calyx........
Nos. 4- 6
a Pedunlces very short. Fruit filling the open calyx..................
1 P. viscosa L. Pubescent, erect or decumbent; branches somewhat dichoto-mous and angular; lvs. solitary or in pairs, ovate, more or less cordate, repand-toothed or entire; fls. spotted or dark purple in the throat; anth. yellow, 1 or 2 often longer. - Dry fields and road-sides, Can. and U. S. Plant If high, often viscid. Lvs. variable, twice as long (1 - 4') as the petioles; when in pairs, one of them is much smaller. Cor. twice as long as the calyx, greenish-yellow, the 5 spots often confluent. Fruit yellow or orange-colored, pleasant to the taste. Jn., Jl. (P. Pennsylvania L. P. tomentosa Walt. P. heterophylla Nees.)
β. nyctaginea. Calyx hirsute; corolla not spotted. (P. nyctaginea Dun.)
2 P. lanceolata Mx. (nec Dunal.) Decumbent, branching, hirsute or pubescent (at first erect); lvs. in pairs, unequal, ell ptic-lanceolate, tapering and acute at each end, petiolate, entire or repand-denticulate; ped. filiform, scarcely as long as the slender petiole; cor. spotted; stam. yellow, equal; cal. in fr. rounded and urn-bilicate at base. - Dry soils. Car., Tenn., Ga. to La. Sts. 6 to 15' long, often diffuse. Lvs. green, and with their petioles about 3' long, all twins except the lowest. Fls. 6" long, yellow. Jn. - Aug.