1 S. vulgaris L. Common Lilac. - Lvs. cordate-ovate, entire, glabrous, green both sides; inflorescence thyreoid; limb of cor. subconcave. - There are many varieties in this beautiful shrub. a. Corolla lilac-purple, in a dense thyrse. β. CŒRULEA. Fls. purplish-blue. γ. alba. Cor. white, thryse subcompound. Apr., Jn. - One of the most popular shrubs, beautiful in foliage and fls. † Hungary.
2 S. Persica L. Pehsian Lilac Lvs. lanceolate, acute, smooth, both sides green, sometimes pinnatifid; limb of the cor. flattish. - A smaller shrub than the first, with smaller thyrses of white or lilac-blue flowers. The leaves vary from entire to pinnatifid, small at flowering time. Apr., May. † Persia.
3 S. villosa Tahl. β. Chinensis. Lvs. elliptic, acute at each end, hairy beneath. - † N. China.
3. FORSY'THIA, Vahl. Calyx very short, companulate, 4-parted, deciduous; corolla somewhat bell-shaped, lobes twisted in the bud; stamens 2, inserted in the bottom of the tube, included; ovary 2-celled, cells co-ovuled; capsule ovoid, 2-celled; seeds many, pendulous, narrowly winged. - Shrub with opposite branches and scaly buds.
F. suspensa Vahl. - Shrubberies, comn, Lvs. often in whorls of 3s or 4s, petiolate, simple or pinnately divided, serrate. Fls. preceding the leaves, one from a bud, pedicelled, yellow, with long lobes, † China. (Syringa, Thunb.)
4. CHIONAN'THUS, L. Virginia Fringe Tree. (Gr. snow, ; fls. snow-white.) Calyx 4-parted, short; cor. tube very short, limb 4-parted, lobes linear, elongated; sta. 2, inserted into the cor. tube, included; sty. very short; drupe fleshy; putamen bony, 1-celled, 1-seeded. - Trees with opposite leaves. Branchlets compressed. Racemes terminal and axillary.
C. Virginica L. Lvs. oval and oblong-lanceolate; pedicels long, 1-flowered; cal. glabrous; cor. segm. linear, acute, flaccid. - A shrub or small tree, highly ornamental, in woods, S. Penn. to Fla., Ky., Tenn. Lvs. coriaceous, smooth, of various forms, oval, or ovate, rhombic, lanceolate, eta, on the same tree, 3 to 6' long. Fls. in rather dense, pendulous panicles. Petals snow-white, 8 to 10" in length. Drupes oval, purple. Apr. - Jn. - Far South it is called Old-man' s-beard.
5. LIGUS'TRUM, L. Privet. Prim. (Lat. ligo, to bind, from the use made of its shoots.) Calyx minutely toothed; cor. tube short, limb with spreading, ovate lobes; sta. 2; sty. very short; berry 2-cellcd, 2 - 4-seeded; seeds convex on one side, angular on the other. - Shrubs with simple lvs. Fls. in terminal panicles, tetramerous.
L. vulgare L. Lvs. lanceolate and obovate, acute or obtuse, on short petioles; panicle dense, terminal. - A smooth shrub, 5 - 6f high, in woods and thickets, N. Y. to Va., W. to the Miss. Branches wand-like with opposite, entire, smooth, dark green leaves which are 1 - 2' long, 1/2 as wide, varying from obovate to elliptical, with a rounded, obtuse or acute point Flowers small, numerous, white. Anthers large, exserted. Berries black, in conical bunches, bitter. It is said to have been introduced from England where it is used for hedges. May, June.
6. OSMAN'THUS, Lour. (Gr. ' fragrance, ) Calyx short, bell-shaped, 4-toothed; corolla subrotate, 4-parted; anthers adnate to the inner side of the filaments; style 2-parted, lobes thick, acute. - Habit of Olea. (Olea Thunb.)
O. fragrans Lour. Lvs. elliptic-lanceolate, serrate, glabrous; corymbs or panicles short, axillary, pedicels rather long; style 2-parted. - Shrub with small, white, very odorous flowers which are said to be used by the Chinese to adulterate and flavor tea. The fls. vary to red. † China and Japan.
7. O'LEA, Tourn. Olive. (Gr. Lat. olea, the Olive tree, oliva, the fruit, oleum, the juice.) Calyx short, bell-shaped, 4-toothed; corolla tube short, limb 4-parted, flat, spreading; stamens 2, inserted in the bottom of the tube, opposite, exserted; ovary 2-celled, 2 pendulous ovules in each cell; drupe fleshy, oily, shell bony, 2 or 1-seeded by abortion. - Trees or shrubs, with opposite, entire, coriaceous lvs. and white, often fragrant fls.
O. Americana L. Lvs. lanceolate-elliptic, entire, smooth and shining, acute, attenuated to a petiole; rac. compound, as long as or longer than the petiole; bracts connate, persistent; fls. dioecious; fruit globular. - In the low country, Va to Fla. The American Olive is a tree 15 to 20f high. Wood fine-grained, hard, and when dry difficult to split. Lvs. 4 or 5' long, petioles 1'. Fls. small, fragrant, the fertile and barren on separate trees. Drupes larger than peas, violet-purple, dryish. Apr., May.
8. VISIA'NIA, DC. (Dedicated to Visiani, Professor of botany at Patavia.) Calyx, corolla and stamens as in Olea; fruit obovate or ob-long, with a very thin pulp, and thin, papery shell. - Trees with opposite, entire lvs. and loose, terminal, many-flowered panicles. (Olea, Wall.)
V. paniculata DC. Lvs. ovate, acute, entire, glabrous; panicle glabrous bracts deciduous; style club-shaped; fruit obliquely ovate. - Fls. small, white, numerous, in large naked panicles. Lvs. coriaceous, 3' long, petioles 9".† China.
9- FORESTIE'RA, Poir. (Dedicated to M. Forestier, a French physician.) Dioecious, apetalous; flower buds in the axils of the last year's leaves, scaly with roundish, thin scales, and many-flowered; flowers sessile, crowded, each of the 2 stamens surrounded by a caducous calyx of 4 oblong, minute sepals; flowers pedicellate, umbellate; calyx obsolete; ovary tipped with a slender style and a capitate stigma, 2-celled, cells 2-ovnled; drupe with 1 suspended seed. - Shrubs or small trees, with opposite, simple lvs. and minute fls. (Adelia Mx. Borya Ph.)
1 F. acuminata Poir. Lvs. glabrous, green both sides, lance-elliptic, acuminate at each end, serrulate above, on slender petioles; fruit an oblong-cylindric, pointed, fleshy, glaucous-purple drupe. - In sluggish streams, Ill. (opposite St. Louis!) to Ga. (Macon, Mettauer!). Shrub 10 to 18f high. Lvs. thin, 2 to 3' long, petiole 1'. Mar., Apr. (A. acuminata Mx. F. ligustrina Gr.)
2 F. ligustrina Poir. Lvs. ovate and oblong, attenuate to the petiole, obtuse, coriaceous, serrulate, margins slightly revolute, glabrous above, midvein sparsely pubescent beneath; staminate flowers in small, lateral, globular clusters (fertile plant not seen). - Near Savannah (Feay). Shrub 10 - 15f? high, with slender branches and branchlets. Lvs. with the petioles 1 to 2' by 6 to 10", reticulate, not dotted, beneath.
3 F. porulosa Poir. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, sessile, coriaceous, margins vovolute, lower surface dotted (porulous) and ferruginous. - On the sea-coast, Georgia, and Florida (Pursh.) Leaves all opposite. (A. porulosa Mx.)
Cohort 3. APETALae,
Or Monochlamydeous Exogens. Dicotyledons with no corolla, the calyx or perianth green or colored, consisting of a single series of similar organs, or often wholly wanting.