Trees and shrubs with opposite, simple, sometimes pinnate-leaves, with flowers 4-parted, regular, rarely apetalous, the corolla valvate in the bud. Stamens 2 to 4, mostly 2, and fewer than the corolla lobes. Ovary 2-celled, with 2 suspended ovules in each cell, and fruit fleshy or capsular, seeds 4 (or fewer by abortion), with abundant albumen. Fig. 265.

Genera 24, species 130,natives of temperate climates. The ash is very abundant in N. America. The Phillyreas and the Syriugas are all Oriental.

Properties. - Olive oil is expressed from the pericarp of the Olive (Olea Europaea). The bark of this tree, and also of the ash, is bitter, astringent, and febrifugal. Manna, a sweet, gentle purgative, is the concrete discharge of several species of the Fraxinus, particularly of the European F. Ornus. The species of the ash are well known for their useful timber.

Tribes And Genera

I.

FRAXINEae. - Fruit a dry, winged samara. Leaves pinnate...........................

FRAXINUS.

1

II.

SYUINGEae. - Fruit a dry, 2-celled capsule. Leaves mostly simple (a).

a Calyx persistent; corolla salver-form cyanic...........................................

SYRINGA.

2

a Calyx deciduous; corolla subcampanulate, yellow..................................

FORSYTHIA.

3

III.

OLEINEae. - Fruit a fleshy drupe or berry. Corolla present. Leaves simple (b).

b Corolla lobes long, linear, pendulous, stamens included..............................

CHIONANTHUS.

4

b Corolla lobes short. Stamens included. Fruit a berry...............................

LIGUSTRUM.

5

b Corolla lobes short. Stamens exserted (c).

c Style 2 - parted. Leaves serrate................................................

OSMANTHUS.

6

C Style simple. - Drupe shell bony. (Panicles axillary)..............

OLEA.

7

- Drupe shell papery. Panicles terminal........

VISIANIA.

8

IV

FOLESTIEREae. - Fruit a fleshy drupe. Corolla none. Leaves simple.............

FORESTIERA.

9

I. FRAX'INUS, Tourn. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1467 a separation; from the facility with which the wood splits.) Polygamous or dioecious; calyx 4-toothed, rarely obsolete; petals 2 or 4, coherent at base, oblong or linear, or altogether wanting; stamens 2; stigma bifid; samara 2-celled, flattened, winged at apex, cells 2-ovuled, but 1-seeded; seeds pendulous, compressed. - Trees or shrubs, with opposite, odd-pinnate lvs. and fls. ra-cemed or panicled. American species are all dioecious and apetalous trees.

§ Flowers with a corolla of 4 or 2 whit, linear - oblong petals. Cultivated.................

No. 8

§ Flowers apetalous, polygamous. Leaflets 11 to 13. Cultivated...............................

No. 7

§ Flowers apetalous, dioecious. Fruit always winged at apex (*).

* Calyx persistent at the terete base of the samara...............................

No. 1

* Calyx persistent at the narrow, flattened base of the samara.................

Nos. 2 - 4

* Calyx none, the samara naked at the broad base..................................

Nos. 5, 6

1 F. Americana L. White Ash. Lfts. 7 to 9, petiolulate, ovate or lance-oblong, acuminate, entire or obscurely subserrate, shining above, glaucous beneath; petioles and branchlets terete, smooth; buds yellowish-velvety; panicles compound, axillary, loose; samara linear-oblong, obtuse, narrower and terete at the calyculate base, seed portion half as long as wing. - Woods, Can. to Ga. and La. A forest tree, 40 to 80f high; trunk 2 to 3f diam. Lvs. If long, usually of 7 smooth lfts., which are 3 to 4' by 18" to 2'. Fruit 13 to 15" by 2 to 2 1/2f. Apr., May. (P. acuminata Lam. F. epiptera Mx.) - Timber light, tough and strong, much used by carriage-makers, etc.

2 F. pubescens Walt. Red Ash. Lfts. 7 to 9, petiolulate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, subserrate, veins beneath, petioles and young branhes velvety-pubescent; samara narrow-lanceolate, obtuse, the calyculate base acute, flattish, slightly margined by the decurreut wing. - Swampy or low grounds, Can. and U. S., more common in Penn. and Va. A smaller tree than No. 1, 30 to 60f high, but nearly allied to it. Bark deep brown. Lfts. often reddish beneath, 2 to 3' by 18" to 2'. Timber less valuable. Apr., May. (F. tomen-tosa Mx.)

3 F. viridis Mx. f. Greek Ash. Lfts. 7 to 9, petiolulate, ovate or ovate-lance-late, acuminate, serrate, green and glabrous both sides, beneath slightly glaucous and pubescent in the axils of the veius; petioles and branchlets glabrous; samara, calyculate, spatulate, obtuse, the seed portion as long as the wing. - A small tree 15 to 25f high in wet woods U. S., especially the Western, Wis. to Tenn. and Car. Lfts 2 1/2- to 4' long, with a long, slender point. Fruit 12 to 15" long. May. (F. concolor Muhl. F. juglandifolia DC.)

4 F. platycarpa Mx. Lfts. 5 to 7, short-petioled, subserrate, elliptic, acute at both ends, or slightly acuminate, petioles and veins beneath pubescent; samara elliptic-oblanceolate, attenuate at base, broad above, obtuse, calyculate, and often with a third wing! - Wet woods, Va. to Fla. and La. Lfts. distant, 3 to 5' long, a third as wide. Samara 18 to 20" long, 6" or more wide above the middle, tapering to the narrow, margined base.

β. triptera. Lfts. oblanceolate and oblong, samara more frequently 3-winged - S. Car. to La. (F. triptera Nutt.)

5 F. quadrangulata Mx. Blue Ash. Lfts. 7 to 9, short-petioled, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acuminate, sharply serrate,, obtutish at base, glabrous, veins beneath at base downy; branchlets glabrous, square, with 4 linear or slightly membanous angles, at length terete; buds velvety; samara oblong, obtuse at each end, naked (no calyx!) at base. - A tall tree in rich woods, Ohio to Tenn. and Iowa. Trunk CO to 80f high. Lfts. 3 to 4' long, distinctly petiolulate; petiolules 2 to 5" long.

. Anth. of the fertile fls. oval, narrowed towards the base. Timber strong and elastic, like that of No. 1. May.

6 F. sambucifolia Lam. Black Ash. Water Ash. Lfts. 7 to 11, lance-ovate, sessile serrulate, acuminate, smooth above, tawny villous at their insertion and in the axils of the veins beneath; fr. oblong, with similar ends, obtuse or emargi-nate, naked (no calyx) at base. - Common in swamps or moist woods, Northern U. S. and Can. Height 40 to 70f, with a trunk 2f diam. Bark brown. Buds blue. Lfts. 3 to 4' long. Samara 16 to 20" by 3 to 4", entirely naked at base! May. - Wood purplish, tough, elastic, excellent for the cooper and basket-maker.

7. F. excelsior L. European- Ash. Lfts. 11 to 13, subsessile, lance-oblong, glabrous, with slender serratures; racemes short, dense, samara linear-oblong, obtuse, obliquely emarginate. - Parks. A tall tree, in many varieties, among which β. pendula, Weeping Ash, is the most interesting. † Eur.

8 F. Ornus L. Flowering Ash. Lfts. 7 to 9, subpetiolulate, lanceolate, serrate above, entire at base, bearded on the veins beneath; buds downy; panicles dense; petals 2 or 4 (white), linear-oblong, much longer than the calyx; samara lance-linear, obtuse, attenuate at each end. - Parks, † From Eur.

2. SYRIN'GA, L. Lilac. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1468 a shepherd's pipe; from the use once made of its branches.) Calyx small, 4-toothed, persistent; corolla salver-form, tube several times longer than the calyx, limb cleft into deep, obtuse, spreading valvate segments; stamens short, included within the tube. Capsule 2-celled, 2-valvcd. - Oriental, flowering shrubs, with simple, entire leaves.