10 S. brachiata Ell. St. slender, eubquadrangular, internodes 2 - 4 times longer than the leaves; branches opposite, suberect; lvs, linear and lance-linear, lower ones ovate, all acutish, sessile; panicle oblong; cal. segments linear, twice longer than the tube, twice shorter than the corolla; cor. 5-parted, segments oblong-obovate, obtuse, light purple. - Dry, grassy, prairies, Ia. abundant, also Tenn. and Car. Stem a foot high, few or many-flowered. Leaves 9 - 12" by 1 - 3". Flowers 15" diam., of a delicate blush-purple, the star in the center yellow, bordered with green. Jl., Aug. (S. concinna, 2d Edit.)
2. ERYTHRae'A, Renealm. (Gr. red.) Calyx 5, rarely 4-parted, angular; corolla funnel-form, twisted and withering above the capsule, tube cylindric, limb 5 - 4-parted; sta. 5 - 4, inserted near the top of the tube; anth. exserted, spirally twisted; sty. 1; stig. bilamellate or capitate; caps. 2-valved, 1 or partly 2-celled. - St. subangular. Lvs. connate at base. Fls. cymous, roseate, white or yellow.
1 E. Muhlenbergii Griseb. St. simple below, dichotomously branched above; lvs. ovate-long, obtusish; cymes loose, dichtotomous; fls. pedicellate; cor. tube a little longer than the calyx, segments oblong-lanceolate, acutish. - N. Y., Penn. Very rare. St. 3 to 8' high, 1 to 3 times forked. Lvs. 4 to V by 1 to 3", closely sessile. Fls. lateral and terminal-central, the pedicels in the forks near 1/2' long, the others shorter. Cor. bright purple, tube yellowish green, slender. Jl. - Sept. (E. pulchella Hook. Exacum pulchella Ph. ?)
2 E. spicata Pers. St. dichotomously branched, erect; lvs. clasping and slightly decurrent, lower ones oval, obtuse, upper lanceolate, acute; fls. sessile, mostly lateral on the long branches; sep. linear, acute, erect; cor. tube slender, contracted at the neck, lobes spreading, obtuse; anth. linear-oblong, finally twisting outwards. - Coast of Maryland (Pickering). Sandy margins of the seashore, Nantucket (Oakes). Whole plant very smooth and intensely bitter, 6 to 12' high. Lvs. 1' long, fleshy, pale green. Cor. 8" long, rose or nearly white. (E. Picker-ingii Oakes.) § Eur.
3 E. Centaurium Pers. Erect, branched above; lvs. oblong, acutish at each end; fls. subsessile in the loosely corymbed cymes; cor. tube twice longer than the calyx, lobes short, oval, obtuse, erect-spreading. - Fields, Oswego, N. Y. and Can. St. 5 to 10' high. Lvs. 1' and less in length, half as wide, 3-veined. Fls. 6 ' long, rose-color, its yellow anthers exserted, and soon twisted. Aug. § Eur.
3. GENTIA'NA Tourn. (To Gentius, king of Illyria, who discovered the tonic virtues of this genus.) Calyx 5 to 4-parted or cleft; corolla roarescent, tubular at base, limb 4 to 5-parted, segments either spreading, erect or convergent, often furnished with intermediate, plicate appendages; stamens 5 to 4, inserted in the corolla tube; stigmas 2, revolute or erect; styles short or 0; capsule 2-valved, l-celled, many-seeded. - Herbs of various habit. Lvs. opposite. Fls. terminal or cymous.
§ Corolla destitnte of folded appendanges - and the segments entire................
- and the segments fringed.............
§ Coroll with folded, often toothed appendages between the lobes, (a)
a Flowers solitary, terminal, blue or white..................................
a Flowers clustered, - yellowish or cream - white.........................
Nos. 5, 6
- blue, - never opening; the folds as long as segments.....
- opening; the folds shorter than segments........
Nos. 8, 9
1 G. quinqueflora L. St. 4-angled, branching; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-veined; fls. terminal and axillary, about in 5s, pedicellate; cor. tubular-campan-ulate, with 5 lanceolate, setaceously acuminate segments; cal. very short, segm. subulate-linear. Woods and pastures Can. and U. S. Stem a foot high, smooth, generally branched. Leaves 3 - 5-veined, half-clasping, acute, smooth. Fls small, on pedicels half an inch in length. Corolla pale blue, 4 times as long as the sepals. Sept., Oct.
β. parviflora. Cal. enlarged, lobes foliaceous, lance-linear, half as long as the smallish corolla. - This variety prevails in the W. States.
2 G. crinita Frœlich. Blue Fringed Gentian. St. terete, erect; lvs. lanceolate, acute; fls. tetramerous; cor. segm. conspicuously fringe-ciliate. - Not uncommon in cool, low grounds, Can. to Car. Stem If high, round and smooth. Branches long, with a slight curve at base, becoming erect and straight, each bearing a single, large, erect Mower at the leafless top. Leaves broadest at base, tapering to the apex, 1 - 2' long and I- as wide. Calyx square, segm. acuminate, equaling the tube of the corolla. Cor. of a bright bluish-purple, the segments obovate, finely fringed at the margin. Aug. - A beautiful and interesting plant.
3 G. detonsa L. St. nearly strict, simple or branched; lvs. linear and lance-linear, the lowest rosulate, spatulate; ped. 1-flowered, very long, subsolitary; cal. 4 ( - 5)-cleft, lobes ovate and lanceolate, nearly equaling the corolla; cor. lobes roundish-obtuse, ciliate at the sides, crenate at top, erect-spreading; stig. distinct. - N. Y., Wis. (Lapham) N. to Hudson's Bay. A fine species, with large blue flowers. Stem a foot high. Leaves 1 - 2 1/2' by 1 - 3", tapering to an acute point. Peduncles 4 - 7' long, each with a single large, erect, showy flower. Cor. 15 - 20" long, obconic or bell-shaped, blue.
4 G. angustifolia Mx. St. erect, slender, 1-flowered; fls. pedunculate; lvs. linear obtuse, smooth, the lower ones subcuneate; cor. funnel-form, narrow, open, 5-cleft, twice as long as the calyx, lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse, twice as long as the lacerate folds. - N. J. to Fla. in sandy fields. Stem a foot high. Lvs. 1' long. Flower large, sky-blue, 20" long. Calyx deeply cleft, with linear segm. Sept., Oct. - A variety at the South (Quincy, Fla., Dr. Danalson) has white fls. 18" long.
5 G. ochroleuca Froel. Sts. nearly or quite smooth, simple, terete; fls. sessile, clustered at summit, rarely in one or two of the upper axils; lvs. oval-lanceolate, the highest lanceolate, lowest obovate-lanceolate, all narrowed to the sessile base, obscurely 3-nerved, rather acute; cal. segm. lance-linear, a third longer than the tube, nearly as long as the greenish-white, open corolla. - Va. to Fla. frequent. Sts. about If high. Lvs. much longer than the internodes. Cor. 2' long, with green veins and purple stripes, lobes ovate, folds very short. Sept., Oct