6 G. alba Muhl. (Gray). Very smooth; st. stout, erect; fls. densely clustered at the summit, solitary in one or two axils; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, or lanceolate, half clasping at the broad base, gradually acuminate, 3-veined; cal. segm. ovate, ■much shorter than its bell-shaped tube, 4 times shorter than the cream-white corolla. Woods and prairies, Middle, W. and S. States. St. 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 3 to 4' by 1' to 18". Cor. 30" long, the ovate lobes much longer than the jagged appendages or folds, open but connivent. Jl. - Sept. (G. ochroleuca Griseb. etc.)
G Andewsii Griseb. Closed Blue Gentian. Lvs. oval-lanceolate, 3-veined, acute; fls. in whorled heads, sessile cor. ventricous, clavate-campanulate, closed at top, 10-cleft, the inner segments plicate and fringed, equaling the exterior; cal. segm. ovate-oblong, many times shorter than the deep blue corolla. - Brit. Am. to Car. A handsome plant, conspicuous in meadows and by brook-sides. Stem 12 - to 18' high, simple, erect, smooth, with opposite, smooth leaves, scabrous on the margin, resembling those of the common Soapwort. Flowers erect, 18" long, subsessile, inflated, so nearly closed at the top as to be easily mistaken for buds; and the young botanist waits in vain to see them expand. Sept., Oct. (G. Sap-onaria, 2d. edit., etc.)
8 G. Saponaria L. St. ascending or erect, smooth; fls. clustered at the summit and often in the axils; lvs. ovate lanceolate to lance-obovate, acutish, rough-margined, narrowed to the subclasping base; cal. segm. lance-linear or spatulate, about equaling the tuba, half as long as the corolla; cor. bright blue, lobes conni-vent, ovate, open, twice (more or less) longer than the cleft folds. - Va. to Ga. and La. St. 8 to 18' high, slender or rather stout. Lvs. 1 to 2 to 3' long. Cor. 18" to 2' long. Cal. segm. varying from lance-linear to lance-obovate! Aug., Sept
β. linearis. St. slender, ascending; lvs. linear and lance-linear, rigid; cal. 83gm. mostly linear; cor. folds very short. - Can. to Car. and Ky. A common form, so peculiar that wo might as well perhaps regard it as a species. (G. Pueumonanthe Mx.)
9 G. puberula Mx. St. erect or ascending, slender, rough, scarcely puberulent; fls. clustered, rarely solitary; lvs. ovate and ovate-lanceolate, half-clasping, very rough-edged, acute, short but longer than the internodes; cal. segm. lanceolate, about as long as its tube, half as long as the subcampanulate, bright blue corolla; cor. subfunnel-form, lobes acute, thrice longer than the cleft folds. - W. and S. States. Plant 10 to 18' high, very leafy and scabrous. Lvs. 9" to 20" long. Fls. 15" long. It varies with leaves linear-lanceolate and less rough. (G. Cates-baei Ell)
4. BARTO'NIA, Muhl. (Centaurella Mx.) Screwstem. (Dedicated in 1801, by Dr. Muhlenburg, to Benj. F. Barton, Prof, of Botany, Philadelphia.) Flowers 4-merous; sepals appressed; corolla subcampanulate; petals slightly united, nearly erect; stigma thick, gland-ulous, somewhat bifid; capsule 1-celled, 2-valved, invested by the permanent calyx and corolla; seeds very numerous and minute. - N. American, slender, erect herbs, with scale-like lvs. and small white fls.
1 B. verna Muhl. St. short, simple; ped. 1-flowered, the lower much longer, often alternate; cor. segm. spatulate, obtuse, thrice longer than the calyx; ova. conical, tipped with the distinct style. Bogs, Va. to Ga. Sts. 3 to 5' high, clustered. Scales 1" long, as in the other, the fls. white, 3" long. March.
2 B. tenella Muhl. St. branching above, branches subdivided; lvs. subulate, minute; pan. erect, many-flowered; pedicels subequal; sep. distinct, a third shorter than the corolla; ova. ovate, sty. almost 0. - A slender and nearly naked plant, 5 to 8' high, of a yellowish-green color, in wet grounds, Mass. to Ga. St. square, often twisted, with very minute, bract-like leaves, which are mostly opposite. Ped. simple or branched. Pedicels bracteate at base, 2 to 3" to 5" in length. Cal. segm. linear-lanceolate, acute. Cor. white, small, 1 1/2" long. Aug.
β. BHACHIATA. Branches and pedicels elongated, decurved, i. e, outwards and upwards, and often alternate; car. more open, lobes very acute, twice longer than the calyx. - Southward (B. Moseii Steud.).
5. FRA'SERA, Walt. Columbo. (In honor of John Fraser, an American cultivator of exotics.) Flowers mostly tetrameruus; petals united at base, oval, spreading, deciduous, each with 1 or 2 bearded, orbicular glauda in the middle; style 1; stigmas 2, distinct; capsule compressed, 1-celled; seeds few, imbricate, large, clliptic, margined. - Showy and tall, with opposite or verticillate leaves.
F. Carolinensis Walt. St. tall, erect, glabrous, branched above; lvs. oblong, lanceolate, acutish, sessile, feather-veined, entire or wavy; panicle compound, pyramidal, leafy, verticillate; cal. segments acute, shorter than the oblong, obtus-ish petals gland solitary, oval-orbicular. - Most woods, Western N. Y., Wis. and S. Car. Stem dark purple, 4 - 7 - 9fl high, perfectly straight, 1 - 2' thick at base. Leaves smooth, subcarnous, 3 - 12' by 1 - 3', in whorls of 4 - 6, rarely opposite. Petals greenish, with blue dots and a largo purple gland near the base. June, July. - Highly valued as a tonic.
6. HALE'NIA, Borkh. Felwort. (Derivation unknown.) Flowers tetramerous; corolla short-campanulate, petals spurred at base, with glands at the base of the spur within; stigmas 2, terminating the acuminate ovary; capsule 1-celled; seeds indefinite, obtuse, fixed to the sutures of the valves, - Erect, branching.
H. deflexa Griseb. St. erect, leafy; lvs. 3 to 5-veined, radical ones oblong-spatu-late, tapering into a petiole, cauline ones oblong-lanceolate, acute, sessile; spurs cylindric, obtuse, deflexed, half as long as the corolla. - Swamps, Can., .Bangor, Maine (Miss Towle), N. Y., and Wis., rare. Stem about 18' high, obtusely 4-angled, smooth, with few branches above. Leaves 1 1/2 - 2' long, 1/2 as wide Flowers greenish-yellow, in terminal fascicles. Corolla persistent, with 4 spreading horns or spurs descending between the sepals. Aug. (Swertia Mx.)