Herbs smooth, with a colorless, bitter juice, with entire, exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, mostly centrifugal in inflorescence and convolute in the bud. Calyx per-iistent; corolla withering, its lobes alternate with the stamens. Ovary free, 1-celled with 2, more or less projecting parietal placentae. Fruit a 2-valved, septicidal, ∞-seeded capsule, rarely baccate. Seeds with a minute, straight embryo in the axis of" fleshy albumen.

Genera 60, species 450, found in every part of the world.

Properties. - An intensely bitter principle called gentiunine pervades the whole order without exception, residing in every part rendering them tonic and febrifugal. The gentian of the shops is most commonly the product of Gen-tiana lutea, but most other species, and species of other genera, as Limnanthe-mum, Sabbatia, Frasera, etc, are valued in medicine for the same properties, and may be used in its stead. Many are cultivated for ornament.

Fig. 664. 1, Gentiana Andrewsii

Fig. 664. 1, Gentiana Andrewsii. 2, The calyx and capsule. 3, The corolla laid open, showing the folds (2-lobed) between the proper petals, and the stamens attached at base. 4, Capsule cut across. 5, Seed magnified, with its large, loose testa.

Tribes And Genera

II.

MENYANHEae - Cor. valvate-induplicate in the bud. Leaves alternate or radical, (a)

a Petals beardless or nearly so. Leaves simple, floating.................

LlMNANTHEMUM.

9

a Petals bearded inside. Leaves trifoliate, erect...........................................................

Menyanthes.

8

I.

Gentianeae. - Corolla convolute (in No. 7, imbricate) in the bud. Leaves opposite, (b)

b Sepals only 2. Corolla 4-parted, tubular campanulate.................

Obolaria.

7

b Sepals as many as the petals, more or less united, (c)

c Corolla lobes furnished each with a spar in the midst...............................

HALENIA.

6

c Corolla lobes furnished each with a large central gland...........................

FRASERA.

5

c Corolla lobes plain, without spurs or glands, (d)

d Leaves reduced to scales. Corolla deeply 4-parted............

Bartonia.

4

d Leafy. - Corolla tubular, blue or white...................

GENTIANA.

3

- Corolla tubular, rose or pink...................

ERVTHRaeA.

2

- Corolla rotate, rose or pink......................

SABBATIA.

1

1. SABBA'TIA, Adams. American Centaury. (In honor of Sab-bati, a distinguished Italian botanical author.) Calyx 5 to 12-parted; corolla rotate, limb 5 to 12-parted; stamens 5 to 12; anthers erect, at length recurved, 2-celled, opening by chinks; style 2-parted, slender, deciduous; capsule 1-celled, the valves a little introflexed. -Tribes And Genera 1429 Slender herbs, very beautiful, with pedicellate, mostly roseate fls. All N. American.

§ Corolla mostly 9 (rarley 7 to 12) - parted, rose - red. LAPITHEA, Griseb............

Nos

1.2

§ Corolla 5 (rarelvy 6)-parted. True Sahhatia. (a)

a Branches alternate or forked. - Flowers white or nearly so.............................

Nos.

3, 4

- Flowers rose red, starred................................

Nos.

5, 6

a Branches opposite. - Flowers white, corymbed...............................................

Nos.

7, 8

- Flowers rose - red, paniculate.........................................

Nos.

9,10

1 S. gentianoides Ell. St. strict, terete, subsimple; lvs. longer than the inter-nodes, linear, rigid, erect, floral reflexed; fls. 8 to 10-parted, in small, terminal and axillary capitate cymes; cal. segm. subulate, shorter than the obovate-spatulate, obtuse petals. - Ponds in pine barrens, Ga. to La. and Tex. Plant 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long. Fls. very handsome, deep rose-color, 16" diam. Aug. (Lapi-thea, Griseb.)

2 S. chloroides Ph. St. slender, weak, subterete; lvs. lanceolate, erect; branches few, alternate, 1-flowered; fls. 7 to 12-parted; sep. linear, shorter than the corolla. - Wet grounds, Mass., R. I. to Ga. and Fla. St. 2 to 3f high, somewhat angular. Lvs. 1 to 1 1/2' long, closely sessile, acute, veinless. Fls. solitary, terminal. Cor. nearly 2' diam., much larger than the calyx, bright purple with a yellow base. Jn.

3 S. calycosa Ph. St. erect, terete, fork-branched, rather rigid; lvs. oblong, 3-veined, obtuse; fls. solitary, 5 to 6-parted; cal. leafy lance-oblong, equaling or exceeding the corolla; pet. oblanceolate. - Fields and meadows, Va. to Ga. and La. St. a foot high, subangular, with spreading branches. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, sessile, mostly obtuse, oval, thin. Fls. on long, rigid peduncles, about 1' diam., pink colored. Sep. acute. Fruit as largo as a pea. Jn. - Sept.

4 S. paniculata Ell. St. terete, or slightly angled at base; internodes much exceeding the leaves; branches alternate; lvs. linear, the lower oval and rarely roundish; panicle diffuse but its branches strict; cal. segm. linear-setaceous, 2 or 3 limes longer than its tube, twice shorter than the corolla; cor. segm. 5, obtuse. - Damp pine barrens, South, common. Much branched, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 4 to 10" long. Fls. white, 1' diam. Jl. - Oct

5 S. gracilis Salisb. St. slightly angular, internodes twice longer than the leaves; brandies flaccid, 1-flowered, alternate, spreading; lvs. linear and lance-linear, the lowest lance-ovate; panicle diffuse, few-flowered; cal. segments linear-setaceous, about equaling the corolla; cor. 5-parted, lobes elliptic-oblong, obtuse. - Marshes and meadows, Penn. to Fla. and La. Very slender, 1 to 2f high, with long, almost filiform branches. Fls. terminal, subsolitary, 14" broad, on long peduncles. Jl, Aug.

6 S. stellaris Ph. St. somewhat angular, sparingly fork-branched, with long, 1-flowered branches; lvs. lanceolate and obovate-lanceolate, acute; cal. segm. linear, varying in length but much shorter than the 5-parted corolla, the tube top-shaped, very short. - Marshes, Can. to Car. St. 3 to 15' high, often diffusely branched, Lvs. about 1' long, the upper almost linear. Fls. of a bright rose-color, with a yellow star bordered with deep red. Jl. - Sept. S. gracilis (Ell.), which it closely resembles.

7 S. corymbosa Baldwin. St. (-lightly 4-angled, internodes twice longer than the leaves; branches opposite; les. ovate-lanceolate, 3-veined, acutish, upper ones lanceolate; cyme fastigiate, terminal; cal segm. linear, 3 times longer than its tube, twice shorter than the corolla; cor. 5 to 6-parted, white, lobes obovate-olong, obtuse. - Pine barrens, N. J. to Ga. St. a loot high, branching near the summit. Lvs. an inch in length, closely sessile. Fls. few, generally 6-merous, white. Jn., Jl. (Chironia lanceolata Walt.)

8 S. macrophylla Hook. St. terete, glaucous; internodes twice longer than the leaves; branches opposite; lvs. ovate, acuminate-cuspidate; 5-veined, clasping and subconnate at base, the upper lanceolate; panicle fastigiate; cal. segm. setaceous, shorter than its short tube; cor. segm. 5, elliptic. - In La. (Hale, near Covington). St. 2f high. Lvs. 2' long. Fls. smaller than any here noticed, about 7" broad, white.

9 S. angularis Ph. St. quadrangular, with winged angles; lvs. ovate, amplexicaul, 5-veined; panicle corymbous; ped. elongated; sep, lance-linear, half as long as the corolla, distinct almost to the base; cor. segments obovate, obtuse. - Wet meadows and prairies, Can. to Car. and Ark. Stem 10 - 18' high, much branched, branches opposite. Leaves closely embracing the stem, 1 - 2' by 1/2 - 1 1/2', as long as the internodes or often shorter. Flowers numerous, 1 1/4 - 1 1/2' diam., deep rose-color, the star in the center greenish. Jl., Aug. (Chirdnia, L.)