Serbs smooth and delicate, with brittle stems, and a watery juice. Leaves usually alternate, multifid, often furnished with tendrils. Fls. irregular, purple, white or yellow. Sepals 2, very small. Petals 4, hypogynous, parallel, one or both of the outer saccate; 2 inner cohering at apex. Sta. 6, diadelphous; fil. dilated; anth, adnate, extrorse, 2 outer 1-celled, middle 2-celled. Ova. superior, 1-celled; sty.
filiform; stig. with one or more points. Fr. either an indehiscent nut 1 - 2-seeded, or a pod-shaped capsule many-seeded. Sds. shining, ariled. Albumen fleshy.
Illustrations, 42, 43, 44, 318.
Genera 15, species 110, - some of them beautiful and delicate, inhabiting thickets in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. They possess no remarkable action upon the animal economy.
Corolla equally 2-spurred or 2-gibbous at base. (a)
Corolla unequal, only one of the petals spurred. (b)
a Petals not united, deciduous. Not climbing.......................................
a Petals united, persistent. Plants climbing.......................................
b Fruit pod-shaped, many-seeded.......................................
b Fruit a globular, 1-seeded nut...........................
1. DICENTRA, Borkh. Ear-drop. (Gr. double; a spur; from the character.) Sepals 2, small; petals, 4, the 2 outer equally spurred or gibbous at base, and distinct; stamens united in 2 sets of three each; pod 2-valved, many-seeded. - Fls. in racemes on scapes. (Diclytra, DC.)
Low herbs (6'), with white flowers, in simple racemes.................................
Nos. 1, 2
Taller (12'), with purple flowers, in paniculate racemes.................................
Nos. 3, 4
1 D. cucullaria DC. Fig. 42, 43, 318. Dutchman's breeches. Root bulbi-ferous; rac. 4 - 10-flowered, secund; spurs divergent, elongated, acute, straight. - Woods, Can. to Ky. A smooth, handsome plant. , Rhizome bearing triangular, small, pale red, scale-like tubers, forming a loose bulb under ground. Lvs. radical, multifid, somewhat triternate, smooth, with oblong-linear segments, the petioles rather shorter than the scape. Scape slender 6 - 10' high. Fls. scentless, nodding, whitish, at summit yellow: Pedicels short, axillary to a bract, and with 2 minute bracteoles near the flower. Spurs about as long as the corolla. Apr., May.
2 D. Canadensis DC. Fig. 44. Squirrel Corn. St subterranean, tuberiferous, tubers globous, raceme simple, secund, 4 - 6-flowered; spurs short, rounded, obtuse, slightly incurved. - A smooth, pretty plant, common in rocky woods, Can. to Ky. The rhizome bears a number of roundish tubers about the size of peas, and of a bright yellow color. Lvs. radical, subglaucous, biternate, the lfts. deeply pinnatifid, segments linear-oblong, obtuse, 5 - 8" long. Scape 6 - 8' high, bearing a few odd-looking flowers. Cor. white, tinged with purple, fragrant, 5" long. Sta. 3 on each lip. May, Jn.
3 D. eximia DC. Rhizome scaly; lvs. numerous; rac. compound, the branches cymous; fls. oblong, spurs very short, obtuse, incurved; stigma 2-horned at apex. - A fine species on rocks, etc., found by Dr. Sartwell in Yates Co., N. T., S. to N. Car. Lvs. radical, 10 - 15' high, somewhat triternate, with incisely pinnatifld, acute segments. Scape 8 - 12' high, with several (4 - 8) cymes, each with 6 - 10 purplish, nodding flowers. Cor. 8 - 10" long, 1/4 as broad at base. Bracts purplish, at base of pedicels. Jn., Sept.† (Corydalis formosa Ph.)
4 D. formosa DC. Rhizome many-leaved; rac. slightly compound; fls. ovate, inflated; spurs short, rounded, saccate; stig. entire. - Can. to Or. An elegant and showy species in cultivation, about the size of the last, with foliage less incised and lobes rather obtuse. Rac. secund, the cymes 2 to 4-flowered. Fls. bright purple, about 10" long, by 5" or 6" wide, the stigma angular, not cleft as in No. 3. May, Jl.†
2. ADLUMIA, Raf. Mountain Fringe. (Named for John Adlum, Washington, D. C, a cultivator of the vine.) Sepals 2, minute; petals 4, united into a fungous, monopetalous corolla, persistent, bigibbous at base, 4-lobed at apex; stamens united in 2 equal sets; pod 2-valved, many-seeded.- A delicate, climbing vine.
A. cirrhosa Raf. Rocky hills, Can. to N. Car. Stem striate, many feet in length. Lvs. decompound, divided in a pinnate manner, ultimate divisions 3-lobed, smooth, their foot-stalks serving for tendrils. Fls. very numerous, in axillary, pendulous, cymous clusters, pale pink. Cal. minute. Cor. slightly cordate at base, of 4 petals united into a spongy mass, cylindrie, compressed, tapering upward, 2-lipped. Fine for arbors, Jn., Aug.†
3. CORYDALIS, DC. (Gr. name of the Fumitory, from which genus this was taken.) Sepals 2, small; petals 4, one of which is spurred at the base; stamens 6, diadelphous; filaments united into two equal sets by their broad bases, which sheath the ovary; pod 2-valved, compressed, many-seeded. - Lvs. cauline. Pedicels racemous, bractless.
1 C. glauca Ph. Glaucous, erect; fls. red, yellow at the tip; pods erect; lobes of the lfts. obtuse, bracts minute.- Rocky woods, Can. to N. Car., 1 - 3f. high. Lfts. 1' long, 3-lobed, Corolla with a short, blunt spur. Racemes panicled. Apr. - Jl.
2 C. aurea Willd. Low, diffuse, finally ascending (8 - 12'); lobes of the haves acute; rac. opp. the lvs. and terminal; fls. secund, bright yellow, spur deflected; pods pendulous.- Rocky shades. Cor. 6". Apr. - Jl.
β. macrantha. Fls. 10"; spur nearly as long as the limb. Dakota.
γ. flavula. Fls. 3 - 4", pale yellow; spur very short; pet. pointed. Com.
3 C. montana Engl.? Ascending; rac. terminal; lf.-lobes obtuse; bracts lanceolate;, cor. yellow, spur ascending, nearly as long as the limb; lower pet. at length pendent; pods erect, seeds lenticular. South-Weft.
4. FUMARIA, L. Fumitory. (Lat. fumus, smoke; from its disagreeable odor.) Sepals 2, caducous; petals 4, unequal, one of them spurred at the base; filaments in 2 sets, each with 3 anthers; nut ovoid or globous, 1-seeded and indehiscent. - Lvs. cauline, finely dissected.
F. officinalis L. St. suberect, branched and spreading; lvs. bipinnate; rac. loose; sep. ovate-lanceolate, acute, about as long as the globous, retuse nut.- A small, handsome, smooth plant, 10 - 15' high, in sandy fields and about gardens, introduced from Europe. Lfts. cut into segments, dilated upwards. Fls. small, rose-colored, nodding, the pedicels becoming erect in fruit, and twice as long as the bracts. Jl., Aug. § Eur.