Herbs growing in bogs, often covered with glandular hairs, with lvs. alternate or all radical, mostly circinate (rolled from top to base) in vernation; fls. regular, cypogynous, 5-merous, the sepals, petals and stamens persistent (withering); ova.
compound, one-celled, with the styles and stigmas variously parted, cleft or united seeds CO in the capsule, albuminous; embryo minute.
Genera, 6, species 90. Curious and interesting plants, scattered over the whole globe wherever marshes are found. The halved stigmas are their most singular characteristic. In the sundew, etc, each half stigma is distinct, hence apparently doubling their number, but in the suborder, Parnassiae, the adjacent halves of different stigmas are united, and thus stand opposite to the placentas.
1. DROSERA, L. Sundew. (Gr. dew; from the dew-like secretion.) Sepals 5, united at base, persistent; petals 5; stamens 5; styles 3 - 5 each 2-parted, the halves entire or many-cleft; capsule 3 - 5-valved, 1-celled, many-seeded.- Small aquatic herbs. Lvs. covered with reddish, glandular hairs, secreting a viscid fluid. Vernation circinate.
Scapes 4 - 6 times as long as the leaves...............................
Nos. 1 - 3
Scapes 1 - 2 times as long as the leaves...................................
Nos. 4 - 6
1 D. rotundifolia L. Lvs. orbicular, abruptly contracted into the hairy petiole; fls. white. - A curious little plant, not uncommon in bogs and muddy shores. Whole plant of a reddish color, like the other Sundews, and beset with glandular hairs which are usually tipped with a small drop of a clammy fluid, glistening like dew in the sun. Lvs. about 5" broad and with the petioles 1 - 2' long. Scape slender, 5 - 8' high, the racemes uncoiling as the small white flowers open. Caps. oblong. Jn. - Aug.
2 D. minor. Lvs. obovate, cuneiform at base, the petioles naked; fls purple; scape erect. - More delicate than the preceding, in marshes, Fla. to Texas. Lvs. forming a rosulate tuft, 8 - 12" long, the smooth petiole three times longer than the lamina, which is 2 - 3" wide. Scapes filiform, 3 - 6' high, the raceme simple or forked, 5 or 6-flowcred. Petals light purple. Caps. globular. Seeds oblong, tuberelod. May. (D. brevifolia β. major Torr. & Gr. D. intermedia Chapman.)
3 D. brevifolia Ph. Lvs. cuneiform-spatulate, forming a small, dense tuft (1' diam.); petioles very short, hairy; fls. few, rose colored. - In wet, springy places. Car. to Fla. and La Not half as large as the last. Lvs. 5 or 6" long, 1 - 2" broad, flat on the ground, forming a round, compact rosette. Scape 2 or 3' high, bearing one to three conspicuous flowers. Capsule roundish. Apr.
4 D. longifolia L. Lvs. spatulate-oblong or obovate, ascending, alternate, tapering at base into a long, smooth petiole; scape declined at base; petals white. - Slender and delicate, in similar situations with the last. Lvs. slender, ascending, crenate, beset with numerous hairs tipped with dew-like drops, - length, including the petioles 2 - 3'. Candex lengthened, declinate. Scape bearing a simple racem of small, white flowers, arising 4 - 7'. Jn. - Aug.
6 D. filiformis Raf. Lvs. filiform, very long, erect; scape nearly simple, longer than the leaves, many-flowered; petals obovate, erosely denticulate, longer than the glandular calyx; sty. 2-parted to the base. - Grows in wet, sandy places, along the coast Mass. to Fla., much larger than the preceding species. The lvs. are destitute of a lamina, nearly as long as the scape, beset with glandular hairs, except near the base. Scape about a foot high, with large purple flowers. Aug., Sept.
5 D. linearis Goldie. Lvs. linear, obtuse; petioles elongated, naked, erect; scapes few-flowered, about the length of the leaves; cal. glabrous, much shorter than the oval capsule; seeds, oval, shining, smooth. - Borders of lakes, Can., Mich. to the Rocky Mts. (Hooker, Torr. & Gr.) Scape 3 - 6' high, with about 3 small flowers. Lvs. about 2" wide, clothed with glandular hairs, which are wanting on the petiole. Jl., Aug.
2. DIONAEA, L. Venus' Fly-trap. (One of the names of Venus.) Sepals spreading; petals 5, obovate, with pellucid veins; stamens 10 - 15; styles united into 1, the stigmas many-cleft; capsule breaking irregularly in opening, 1-celled; seeds many in the bottom of the cell.- Glabrous herbs. Lvs. all radical, sensitive, closing convulsively when touched. Scape umbeled.
D. muscipula Ell. A very curious plant, native of sandy bogs in Car., along rivers from the Neuse to the Santee. Sometimes cultivated in a pot of bog earth placed in a pan of water. Lvs. rosulate, lamina roundish, spinulose on the margins and upper surface, instantly closing upon insects and other objects which light upon it. Scape 6 - 12' high, with an umbel of 8 - 10 white flowers. Apr., May. †
Surorder, PARNASSIEAE, Consists of the single genus Parnassia, which differs from the Sundews in having 5 sets of abortive stamens and the 4 stigmas placed over the parietal placentae (as if each stigma were compounded of the two adjacent halves of two divided stigmas. - More recently this genus is stationed among the Saxifrages.
3. PARNASSIA, Tourn. Grass of Parnassus. (Named from Mount Parnassus, the abode of the Muses, Graces, etc.) Sepals 5, united at base, persistent; petals 5, persistent, nearly perigynous; stamens in two series, the outer indefinite in number, united in 5 groups, sterile, the inner 5 perfect; capsule 1-celled, 4-valved; seeds very numerous with a winged testa.- Glabrous herbs, with radical lvs. and 1-flowered scapes.
1 P. Caroliniana L. Sterile fil., 3 in each group, distinct to near the base, sur-mounted with little spherical heads; pel. much exceeding the cal., marked with green veins; lvs. radical, or sessile on the scape, broad, oval, with no sinus at the base. - An exceedingly elegant and interesting plant, growing in wet met-dows and borders of streams, U. S. to Can. Rt. fibrous. Lvs. 7-veined, broad-oval or ovate, smooth, leathery, radical ones long-stalked, the cauline only one, sessile, clasping, a few inches above the root. Scapes 10 - 15' high, with a handsome, regular flower about 1' diam. Jn. - Aug.
β. Filments nearly as long as the petals; cauline leaf small or none; rhizome thick and large. - Fla. (Chapman.)
2 P. palustris L. Sterile fil. pellucid, setaceous, 9 to 15 in each set; cauline 1f, if any, sessile; radical lvs. all cordate. - Bogs and lake shores, Mich, to Lab., and W. to Rocky Mts. Scapes about 6' high, naked or with a single clasping leaf near the base. Fls. white. Sepals oblong-lanceolate. Petals marked with 3 - 5 green or purple veins.
3 P. asarifolia Vent. Sterile fil., 3 in each set; petals abruptly clawed; toft, reniform. - Mts., Va. and Car. Lvs. large (1 - 2' broad), the cauline one sessile, orbicular. Fls. 1 1/2' diam.