Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate, stipulate lvs. and regular flowers. Sepals 5, rarely fewer, united, often reenforced by as many bractlets. Petals 5, rarely 0, distinct, inserted on the disk which lines the calyx tuba Stamens ∞, rarely few, distinct, inserted with the petals (perigynous). Ovaries 1, 2, 5 or ∞, distinct, or often coherent with each other, or immersed in an excavated receptacle (§ 444). Fruit a drupe, or achenia, or a dry or juicy ctaerio (§ 565), or pome. Seeds 1 or few in each carpel, anatropous, exalbuminous; embryo straight (Illustr. in figs. 33, 41, 65, G6, 79, 91, 100, 106, 179, 166, 167, 159, 293, 307, 3S5, 289, 380, 381, 414, 439, 440, 441, 443, 452, 461. 462.)

This order, as hero constituted, includes five suborders, and together 87 genera and 1000 species. A large proportion of these are natives of temperate climates north of the equator.

Properties - A highly Important order, whether we regard its delicious fruit, its medicinal products, or the beauty of its flowers. None of its species (excepting those of the almond tribe) are unwholesome. An astringent principle characterizes the family, residing chiefly in the bark and the roots. The roots of the blackberry have been used in medicine as an astringent; those of the Gillenia, as an emetic; Agrimonia, as a vermifuge. The petals of Rosa damascena yield the well known fragrant oil called attar of rose. The almond, peach, etc. abound in prussic acid, a deadly poison, residing chiefly in the kernels. - Of the Rosaceae, as ornamental flowering shrubs, it is scarcely necessary to speak, neither of its many delicious fruits, as the Apple, Pear, Quince, Apricot, Peach, Plum, Cherry, Strawberry, Blackberry and Raspberry.

SUBORDERS, TRIBES AND GENERA.

§ Suborder I. SANGUISORBEAE. Carpels 1 (rarely 2-4). Petals 0. Herbs. (a)

a Stamens 1 to 4, style lateral. Flowers scattered......................................

Alchemilla

1

a Stamens 4, style terminal. Flowers in dense spikes,...................................

Sanguisorba

2

a Stamens 00, style terminal, stigma fringed. Fls. spicate...........................................

POTERIUM

3

§ Suborder II. CHRYSOBALANEAE. Carpel 1, style lateral. Petals 5.

Shrubs......................................................................................

CHRYSOBALANUM.

4

§ Suborder III. AMYGDALEAE. Carpel 1, style terminal. Pet. 5. Trees, etc. (b)

b Stone smooth, globular. Fruit smooth but not glaucous.......................................

5

b Stone smooth, flattened. Fruit glaucous with bloom, or downy..............................

Prunus

6

b Stone roughened with pits and furrows. - Fruit pulpy..................................

Persica

7

- Fruit dry.............................

Amygdalus

8

( Suborder IV. POMEAE. Carpels 2 to 0, consolidated with the calyx. Fr. a pome. (c)

C Ovary half-superior, 2-carpeled. Leaves very thick, lucid................................

PHOTIN'IA.

9

C Ovary inferior, - Petals bearded. Radicle retracted,...............................

ERYOBOTRYA

10

- Petals smooth, - oblong-spatulate.....................................

Amelanchier

11

- roundish. - Carpels 1-seeded......................

CRATAEGUS

12

- Carpels 2-seeded................

Pyrus

13

- Carpels ∞ -seeded...............

Cydonia

14

§ Suborder V. ROSEAE. Carpels 2 to 50, free, in an open or closed calyx. (*)

* Tribe 1, Rosideae. Carp. 1-seeded achenia inclosed in the calyx tube. (d)

* Tribe 2. Fragarideae. Carp. 1-seeded. Achenia dry or pulpy in an open calyx. (e)

• Tribe 3. SPIRIDEAE. Carpels several-seeded follicles in an open calyx. (f)

d Carpels many, in the fleshy calyx. Fls. often double.................................

Rosa.

15

d Carpels 2 only, in the dry, fluted, echinate calyx.........................

Agrimonia.

16

e Styles peisistent on the dry achenia. Petals 8 or 9.....................................

Dryas.

17

e Styles persistent on the dry achenia. Petals 5..............................................

Geum.

18

e Stylea deciduous, - Calyx bractless. Fr. a heap of pulpy achenia..............................

Rubus.

19

- Calyx bractless. Ach. dryish. Sepals unequal...............

Dalibarda.

20

- Calyx bractless or minutely bracteoled. Sep. equal................

Waldsteinia.

21

- Calyx bracteolate, - Receptacle pulpy, globular, red...........

Fragaria.

22

- Recept. spongy, glob. Fls. purple.....

COMARUM.

23

- Receptacle dry. - Stamens ∞.......

POTENTILLA.

24

- Stamens 5........

SlBBALDIA.

25

f Follicles 2 to 10-secded, Petals obovate, cyanic.................................

Spiraea.

26

f Follicles 2 to 4-seeded. Petals lance-linear, cyanic............................

GlLLENIA.

27

f Follicles 1-seeded. Petals multiplied, orange-yellow............................

.......

Kerria.

28

1. ALCHEMIL'LA, L. Ladies' Mantle. (The plant is called in Arabic alkemelyeh.) Calyx 4-toothed, with 4 external bracteoles; petals 0; stamens 1 to 4, carpels (1 to 4) mostly solitary, with the style lateral, stigma capitate; seed suspended. - Herbs with palmate-lobed or-incised lvs. and small green fls.

1 A. arvensis Scop. Parsley Piert. Lvs. incisely 3-lobed or parted, the segments 2 or 3-cleft, pubescent, cuneate at base; fls. axillary, clustered.-Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 604 Waste grounds, E. Va. A worthless weed, so small as to be easily overlooked.

2 A. alpinus L. Lvs. radical, silky beneath, digitately 5 to 7-foliate, segm. ob-lanceolate, cuneiform at base, incisely serrate at apex; fls. corymbous. - "On the peaks of high mts., Vt. and N. H." (Pursh). But the plant has never been rediscovered there. It is an elegant plant, sometimes cultivated. Common in Eur.

2. SANGUISOR'BA, L. Burnet. Saxifrage. (Lat. sanguis, sor-here, to absorb blood; the plant is esteemed a vulnerary.) Calyx tube 4-sided, 2 or 3 bracted at base; limb 4-parted; petals 0; stamens 4, opposite the calyx segments; filaments dilated upward; style 1, filiform; acbeninm dry, included in the calyx. - Herbs with unequally pinnate lvs. Fls. in dense spikes.

6. Canadensis L. Glabrous; lfts. oblong, cordate, obtuse, serrate; spike8 cylin-dric, very long; stam. much longer than the cal. -Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 605 In wet meadows, Brit. Am. to Ga. along the mts., and cultivated in gardens. St. 2 to 3f high, smooth, striate, sparingly branched. Stip. leafy, serrate. Lfts. 2 to 4' long, 1/3 to 1/2 as wide, petio-late, mostly stipellate. Spikes 3 to 6' long, terminating the long, naked branches. Bracteoles 3. Calyx greenish-white, resembling a corolla. Aug.

3. POTE'RIUM, L. Burnet. (Literally [in Lat] a drinking vessel, and hence a beverage.) FlowersOrder XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 606 . Calyx tube contracted at the mouth, 3-bracteolate, limb 4-parted, petals 0; stamens 20 to 30; ovaries

2; stigma penicillate; aehenia dry, included in the calyx. Herbs with unequally pinnate lvs. Fls. spicate.

P. Sanguisorba L. Herbaceous; st. unarmed, angular, and with the lvs., smooth: lfts. 7 to 11, ovate or roundish, deeply serrate; spikes or heads subglobous, the lower fls. staminate. -Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 607 Occasionally cultivated as a salad, but is now less valued in medicine than formerly. It is said by Hooker to be native about Lake Huron.'

4. CHRYSOBALA'NUS, L. Cocoa Plum. (Gr.Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 608 gold, Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 609Order XLVII Rosaceae Roseworts 610 acorn; in reference to the yellow fruit.) Calyx 5-cleft; petals 6'; stamens about 20, in a single series, ovary solitary, sessile, the style arising from the base; ovules 2, collateral; drupe 1-seeded, with thin pulp. - Shrubs unarmed, with entire, veiny lvs., minute stipules, and terminal panicles.

C. oblongifolius Mx. Lvs. oblong, varying to oblanceolate, subsessile, pedicels and calyx tomentous-hoary; filaments and ovary glabrous; petals sessile; nucleus of the-fruit not grooved. - Pine barrens, Ga., Ala. and Fla. A shrub with a slender, prostrate stem or woody rhizome, sending up short branches (8 to 12'), with smooth, coriaceous, subentire lvs., very glossy above, and very strongly veined, acute or obtuse. Fls. quite small, white. Fruit oblong, as largo as a plum. May, Jn.

5. CER'ASUS. Juss. Cherry. (Primus L.) (Name from Cerasus, a town in Pontus, whence originated the garden cherry.) Calyx 5-cleft, regular, deciduous; petals much spreading; stamens 15 - 20; ovary 2-ovuled; drupe globous, succulent, very smooth, destitute-of a glaucous bloom; stone subglobous, smooth, with no border. - Trees or shrubs. Lvs. conduplicate (folded) in vernation.