Herbs or shrubs with alternate, stipulate lvs. and regular flowers, with 5 sepals united at base, valvate in the bud, often subtended by an involucel; 5 petals hypo-gynous, convolute in the bud with the stamens ∞, monadelphous, hypogynons, and 1-celled, reniform anthers. Pistils several, distinct or united, and stigmas various. Fruit a several-celled capsule, or a collection of 1-seeded indehiscent carpels. Seeds with little or no albumen, and a curved embryo. (Fig. 252, 352.)

Genera 40, species 1060, abundant in the tropics, frequent in the temperate zones, entirely wanting in the frigid. Cotton, one of the most important products of the vegetable kingdom, is the coma of the seeds (§ 585) of Gopsypium. Many of the Malvaceae are handsome flowering plants, and are often cultivated as such.

Properties. - Generally abounding in mucilage, and destitute of any deleterious qualities.

GENERA.

§ Calyx naked, 1. e., having no involucel. (b)

§ Calyx involucelate. - Carpels (and styles) more than 5. (a)

- Carpels 3 to 5 only, - one-seeded, (c)

- 3 - ∞-seeded. (d)

a Involucel of 6 to 9 bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded,.....................................

ALTHAEA.

1

a Involucel of 3 distinct bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded.................................

Malva.

2

a Involucel of 3 united bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded.................................

Lavatera.

3

a Involucel of 3 distinct bractlets. Carpels 2-seeded........................................

MODIOLA.

4

b Flowers dioecious. Stigmas 10, linear...................................

Napaea.

5

b Flowers perfect. Carpels 5 or more, 1-seeded..............................

SlDA.

6

b Flowers perfect. Carpels 0 or many, 3 to 9-seeded.........................

Abutilon.

7

C Stigmas 10. Carpels 5, baccate, united..........................

Malvaviscus.

8

C Stigmas 10. Carpels 5, dry, distinct....................................

Pavonia.

9

C Stigmas 5. Carpels 5, dry, united into a pod..........................

KOSTELETZKYA.

10

d Involucre of many bractlets. Calyx regular................................

Hibiscus.

11

d Involucre of many bractlets. Calyx split on one side

........

Abelmoschus.

12

d Involucre of 3 incisely toothed bractle.....................................

GOSSYPIUM.

13

1. ALTHAEA, L. Marsh Mallow. (Gr.Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 402 to cure; the mucilaginous root is highly esteemed in medicine). Calyx surrounded at base by a 6 to 9-cleft involucel; styles Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 403 , with linear stigmas; carpels Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 404 , 1-secded, indehiscent, arranged circularly, and at maturity separating from the axis.

1 A. officinalis L. Lvs. soft-downy on both sides, cordate-ovate, dentate, somewhat 3-lobed; ped. much shorter than the leaves, axillary, many-flowered.-Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 405 Me. to N. Y., borders of salt marshes. St. 3f high, erect, firm, covered with thick woolly down, with alternate, velvet-like leaves. Fls. large, axillary and terminal, pale purple. The root as well as the other parts of the plants, abounds in mucilage, and in medicine is often used as an emollient. Sept. ‡ § Eur.

2 A. rosea Cav. Hollyhock. St. erect, hairy; lvs. cordate, 5 to 7-angled, rugous; fls. axillary, sessile. -Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 406 A tall plant, very commonly cultivated in gar-dans. Numerous varieties have been noticed, with single, double, and semi-double-Jlowers, of various shades of color, as white, rose-colored, flesh-colored, dark red, and even a purplish black, purple, yellow, straw-color, etc.† China? (Alcea rosea L.)

3 A. ficifolia Cav. Fig-leaved Hollyhock. St. erect, hairy; lvs. palmate, 7-lobed beyond the middle, lobes oblong, obtuse, angular-toothed. -Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 407 St. tall as the above. F1s. orange-colored. † Levant. (Alcea ficifolia L.)

2. MALVA, L. Mallow. (Gr.Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 408 , soft; on account of the soft mucilaginous properties.) Calyx 5-cleft, the involucel 3-leaved; petals obcordate or truncate; styles ∞, with linear stigmas; carpels ∞, 1-celled, 1-seeded, indehiscent, arranged circularly, and at maturity separating from the axis.

§ Leaves orbicular, with 5 to 7 angular lobes. Carpels obtuse.................

Nos. 1 - 3

§ Leaves triangular-deltoid. scabrous. Carpels acute.................

No. 4

§ Leaves palmately 5 to 7-parted.............................

Nos. 5, 6

1 M. rotundifolia L. Low Mallow. St. prostrate; lvs. roundish, cordate, obtusely 5-lobed; ped. in fruit reflexed; cor. (pale) twice as long as the calyx.-

Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 409 Common in cultivated grounds. Sts. numerous, a foot or more long. Lvs. somewhat reniform, crenate, with 5 to 7 shallow lobes, and on long, hairy stalks. Ped. axillary, aggregate. Petals pale pink, deeply notched. Fr. depressed-glob-ous, composed of the numerous carpels arranged circularly, not wrinkled. The child sportively calls them cheeses. Jn. - Oct. § Eur.

2 M. sylvestris L. High Mallow. St erect; lvs. 5 to 7-lobed, lobes of the upper lvs. rather acute; carp. very rugous; pet. (purple) 3 times longer than sep. - A popular garden flower of the easiest culture, often springing up spontaneously in fields and road-sides, Mid. and W. States. Height 3f. Fls. reddish-purple, with veins of a darker hue. The whole plant, especially the root, abounds in mucilage. Jn. - Oct § Eur.

3 M. crispa L. St. erect; lvs. angular-lobed, dentate, crisped, smooth; fls. (white) axillary, sessile. -Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 410 A tall, straight; simple, erect plant from Syria. Gardens, almost naturalized. St. 5 to 6f high. Lvs. large, roundish, margins abundantly crisped and curled. Fls. white, not conspicuous. Jn. - Aug. † §

4 M. triangulata Leav. St. erect, hirsute; lvs. strigous, triangular-deltoid, lower ones, cordate, all undivided, coarsely crenate; panicle terminal, diffuse, many-flowered; petals purple; carp. 10 to 15, slightly beaked. - Prairies and bottoms, Wis., Ill. to Ark. A handsome but rather rough species, 2 to 3f high. Root fusiform. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 1 to 2', on long, hairy petioles, thick. Fls. nearly as large (l 1/2' diam.) as those of M. sylvestris. Beak of the carpels horizontal, a mere angle. Jl., Aug. (Callirrhoe Gray. M. Houghtonii, 1st ed.) 5 M. papaver Car. Poppy Mallow. Lvs. palmately 3 to 5-parted, on long petioles, segments oblong or linear, entire or toothed; fls. on very long peduncles.-Order XXIV Malvaceae Mallows 411 Ga., Fla. to La. A curious species, strongly reminding one of the poppy (Papaver Rheas) in the form and size of the bright red or purple fls., and the very long (5 to 8'), upright peduncles. Sts. branched from the base, scabrous, ascending 12 to 18'. Lvs. variable, the lobes usually quite narrow and open, 2 to 3' long. Petals erose-crenulate. Involucel (rarely wanting) shorter than the calyx. May - Aug. (Nuttallia, Graham.)

6 M. moschata L. Musk Mallow. St. erect; radical lvs. reniform, incised, cauline ones 5-parted; the segments linear-cuneiform, incisely lobed; peduncles shorter than the leaves. - Native of Britain. St. 2f high, branched. Fls. large and handsome, rose-colored. The whole herb gives out a musk-like odor in favorable weather. Jl. †