806. Where does the flow called rotation occur? Describe it
808. What is the process called transpiration? It occurs where and when?
809. What other process depends upon it? Does it convey away pure water only?
810. How much water did a sunflower transpire per day? A cabbage?
811. Describe an arrangement for showing the quantity of transpiration.
812. What do we understand by respiration in plants?
813. What experiment with an air-pump shows its importance?
814. Why does the tree suffer when its roots have been buried too deep?
815. Define respiration in plants. Where does it occur?
816. What does the vast extent of the respiratory apparatus show?
817. State in order the six facts given in relation to respiration.
818. State carefully the two opposite phases of respiration.
819. When does the former phase become visible? When the latter?
820. Explain the phenomena of blanched plants.
821. Describe the interesting experiment of Saussure.
822. Why is no oxygen obtained when boiled or distilled water is used?
824. What are the results of transpiration and respiration on the sap?
825. What proportion of carbonic acid in the air? Whence is it derived?
How much is added to the atmosphere annually?
826. Why does the carbonic acid not accumulate in the air?
827. How might the air become poisonous for animals?
828. Now show how the animal and vegetable kingdoms mutually aid each other.
829. Name the four organogens, i. e., organic elements.
830. In what proportion does each exist? In what proportion all? What the per cent, of carbon? What gives solidity and strength?
831. What do the oxygen and hydrogen form in plants? Give some examples of its quantity from the table.
832. Name some earthy elements found in plants.
833. Give from the table some examples of the proportion of ashes and other elements in vegetables.
834. What is the object of inquiry in Agricultural Chemistry?
834. What is the food of plants? Whence comes their nourishment?
Whence their carbon? Their oxygen? Hydrogen? Nitrogen?
835. What the whole quantity of carbon in the air?
837. Of what does soil consist? Its organic materials.
838. Of what is water composed? Whence the ammonia in rain?
839. What is the composition of ammonia?
840. What source of nitric acid in the air?
841. What are air-plants? Give some examples.
842. Name three requisite conditions of healthy vegetation.
843. What of the supply of the first? Of the second?
844. What is the object of tillage? What of sub-soiling?
845. What the object of manuring? What the use of amendments?
846. What is the good of bone-manure? What of guano?
848. What is fallow ground? What its benefit?
849. What gives efficiency to all these materials?
850. Can you here state the outlines of digestion?
851. What are the constituents of the proper juice?
852. From this vital fluid what is first formed? Next? Thirdly?
853. Where are gum, starch, and sugar deposited?
854. How does sugar differ in composition from starch?
855. How may starch become cellulose? How become sugar?
856. Can you distinguish the vegetable products into two classes?
857. On what principle is the table constructed? Illustrate.
858. What is the object and aim of Systematic Botany? 860. What is the higher purpose accomplished by it?
861. How does it appear that the subject is vast?
862. Mention a wrong way to study.
863. What causes the limits of species? How may the student become acquainted with all the individuals of a species?
864. Give an example of this mode of study.
865. Define a genus. Give an example of a genus.
868. How are the Genera associated into Orders?
869. For example, how is the Order Cruciferae made up? The Coniferae?
870. Into what groups are the Orders themselves associated?
873. Subject of this chapter? Illustrate an artificial classification.
874. Who was Carl von Linne? What system did he invent?
875. What are its defects as a system?
876. Are these defects objections to it as a key? Is it now in use?
877. How many classes in the Linnaean system?
(Further examination at the teacher's option.)
886. The subject? What is the aim of this system?
887. How does it differ from the Artificial System?
888. What the principle of the species and genera?
889. What rule is given as to the relative value of characters?
891. As to history, who may be regarded as the founder? What did he? What did Linnaeus? Jussieu? Robert Brown? De Candolle?
892. What uncertainty in the system yet remains?
893. Whence is the difficulty in settling these divisions?
894. Is there more than one true Natural System?
895. What is the first and highest division of the Natural System?
896. What of the indefiniteness of natural groups?
897. Into what two provinces are the Phsenogamia next resolved? State the diagnosis of the Exogens. Of the Endogens.
898. What divisions next follow? Define the Angiospermae.
Define the Gymnospermae. Name the two classes formed by the Endogens Describe each.
899. Into what two provinces is the sub-kingdom Cryptogamia divided? Define the Acrogens. Define the Thallogens.
900. What two classes correspond with these two provinces? Define the
Angiosporae. Define the Gymnosporae.
901. What name is given to the fourth set of groups? Are the cohorts quite natural groups? Why not '<
903. Whose plan is generally adopted in this country?
Into what three cohorts are the Angiospermae divided? Define the Dialypetalae. The Gamopetalae. The Apetalae.
904. How is the class Petaliferae divided? Define the Spadiciflorae. Define the Florideae.
905. The class Glumiferae is equivalent to what cohort?
906. Name the three cohorts of the class Angiosporae.
907. Name the three cohorts of the class Gymnosporae.
808. Write on the black-board the synopsis of the Natural System.