Introduction

Chapter I

What is the subject treated of in this chapter? What is the " end and aim " of all science?

NOTE. - The class may use this chapter as a Lesson in Reading, or for Recitation, as preferred, but should by no means omit it)

Chapter II

30. Name the three kingdoms of Nature.

31. What is a mineral? A stone?

32. What is a plant? A tulip?

33. What is an animal?

34. Are the three kingdoms perfectly distinct? Explain the diagram.

35. How is the Vegetable kingdom related to the Animal? How is it related to the Mineral kingdom?

36. Define the science of Physics.

37. Define the science of Zoology.

38. Repeat the full definition of the science of Botany.

39. Of what does Structural Botany treat?

40. Of what does Elementary Botany treat?

41. Of what does Physiological Botany treat?

42. What is the aim of Systematic Botany?

43. What of the art Phytology? What is a Flora? 45. Some of the uses of Botany.

Chapter III

What is the subject of this chapter? 52. Why should the study of Botany be commenced early in Spring? 53. What specimens are wanted? Use of the black-board.

How may classes in cities be supplied with specimens?

54. What is an herbarium? Mention some of its Uses?

55. What apparatus is required for collecting specimens?

56. What sort of specimens are wanted for the herbarium? What is the true secret of the art of preparing the specimens?

57. Describe the drying press. How often should the specimens be turned? 50. What apparatus needed in examining flowers?

(The remainder of this chapter may be read aloud or recited by the pupils as the teacher may prefer.)

Questions On Part First. Chapter I

State the title of this chapter.

65. Name the two Natural Grand Divisions of the Vegetable kingdom.

66. What of the Organs, or Organic System of the Phasnogamia? How do the Cryptogamia differ from this?

67. How does the Fern differ from the Rose? How does the Lichen differ from a Violet?

68. Name the two subdivisions of the Phaenogamia.

69. What plants are comprehended among the Exogens? Explain the meaning of the word.

70. What plants are comprehended among the Endogens? Explain the import of the word.

71. Why are the Exogens called also Dicotyledons? Why are the Endogens called also Monocotyledons?

72. How may these two subdivisions be known by their leaves? How may they be distinguished by their flowers?

73. What is said about the two-fold name of a plant? Which name is provincial, and which universal?

75. Show by example how the Latin name is double.

76. Recite verbatim the definition of a species.

77. Notice an example of a species.

78. How may we define a variety? Give an example.

80. Recite verbatim the definition of a genus.

81. Please illustrate by two good examples: - Clover; Pine.

Chapter II

Repeat the title of this chapter.

83. Wherein does animal life differ from plant life?

84. Name the several stages of plant life.

85. Notice the five picture sketches of its biography.

86. How much does the " term of plant life " vary? Strange exception of the castor-oil bean.

87. What of flowering and fruiting? When do they prove fatal? How does the florist's " tree mignonette " bear on this question?

89. State the definition of " Annual herb," " Biennial herb." 91. Also define " Monocarpic herb ," " Perennial plant."

93. What is the herbaceous perennial? The woody perennial? What three distinctions among woody perennials?

94. What the stature of a bush? Of an undershrub?

96. What is the form and stature of a tree? Of a shrub?

97. What is remarked of the age of trees?

98. How may the age of a tree be estimated?

99. Can you instance some trees remarkable for age?

101. Please instance some trees remarkable for grandeur.

102. Now give the distinction of trees relative to their verdure.

Chapter III

103. What is the earliest stage of the plant?

104. In growing, whither does the radicle direct itself? What is the tendency of the plumule?

105. Explain the structure of the bud. How does it grow? Why is the original bud called also terminal?

106. What sort of axis does the terminal bud alone develop?

107. What other buds are also found? Whence arise the branches?

110. Whence does the flower originate?

111. What then is the nature of the flower?

112. From what organ does the fruit originate?

113. Explain these views by the figure of the paeony and its parts.

Chapter IV

Of what does this chapter treat? 114. Define the root. How distinguish root from stem?

116. Please state the two-fold office of the root.

117. What is the leading propensity of the root? What are the only proper appendages of the root?

What end or purpose is answered by the multiplication of these extremities?

118. What is the part designated by the term collum? What are the spongioles, or spongelets?

119. What are the fibrillae? Their office and use?

120. Why should a tree or shrub be transplanted in Spring?

121. Name the two definite modes of root-development.

122. Define accurately the axial mode. The inaxial. Give instances of them both.

124. Name the four varieties of the axial, or tap-root.

125. Define the ramous tap-root. The tuberous.

127. Define the fusiform tap-root. The conical. Napiform. How are all these thickened roots reservoirs?

130. Name the six forms of inaxial roots.

131. Describe, with examples, the fibrous root.

132. Describe the fibro-tuberous root. Moniliform. Tubercular.

133. What is the thickening matter in all these cases?

134. What roots are said to be adventitious?

135. What roots are said to be cirrhous?