19 R. bulbosus L. Hairy; st. erect, bulbous at the base; radical lvs. ternate, lfts. petiolate, incisely dentate, each about 3-cleft; ped. furrowed, cal. reflexed. - This is another acrid species, very common in pastures, mow-lands, etc. Rt. fleshy. St. leafy, furrowed, 6 - 18' high, hollow, thickened at the base into a 6ort of bulb, and dividing above into upright peduncles, with golden yellow flowers. It is well distinguished from R. acris by its reflexed sepals and its furrowed peduncles. The lobes of the root-leaves are also rounded rather than acute at apex. May, Jn. § Eur.
8. MYOSORUS, Dill. Mouse-tail. Fig. 286, 287. (Gr. Ávς, Ávoς, mouse, ovρa, tail; alluding to the long spike of carpels.) Sepals 5, produced downwards at base below their insertions; petals 5, with slender, tubular claws: stamens 5 - 20; achenia very closely spicate on the elongated torus.- Lvs. linear, entire, radical. Scapes 1-flowered. 1 M. minimus L. Prairies and bottoms, Ill. to La. and Oreg. A diminutive plant, remarkable for its little terete spikelet of fruit, which is often more than an inch long. Lvs. 1 - 3' long and 1 - 2" wide. Scape a little taller, with a single minute, pale yellow flower at top. Carp. very numerous, blunt. Apr.
9. ISOPYRUM, L. False Rue Anemone. Fig. 288. Sepals 5, petaloid, deciduous; petals 5, small, tubular, sometimes 0; stamens 10 - 40; ovaries 3 - 20; follicles subsessile, acuminate with the style, 2 - several-seeded. - Delicate herbs, with leaves 2 - 3-ternate, segments 2 - 3-lobed. Fls. pedunculate, axillary and terminal, white.
1 I. biternatum Torr. & Gr. Low, erect, glabrous; pet. none; carp. 3 - 6, broadly ovate, divaricate, sessile, strongly veined, 2-seeded; sds. ovate, compressed, smooth, and shining.- Damp shades, Lake Erie to Ark., rare. Rt. fibrous. Stems several, 4 - 10' high. Lvs. mostly biternate, the radical on long petioles, segm. cuneate-obovate, 4 - 6" long, on stalks of equal length. Fls. on slender peduncles 1 - 2' long. May. Looks like the Rue Anemone.
10. CALTHA, L. Marsh Marigold. (Gr. ĸaλaθoς, a goblet; the yellow calyx may well be compared to a golden cup.) Calyx colored, of 5 - 9 sepals, resembling petals; corolla 0; stamens ∞, shorter than the sepals; follicles 5 - 10, oblong, compressed, erect, many seeded.-
Aquatic and very glabrous.
C. palustris L. Lvs. reniform or orbicular, crenate or entire. - Wet meadows, Can. to Car., W. to Oregon. Root large, branching. Stem about 1 f high, sometimes trailing, hollow, round, dichotomous. Lower lvs. 2 - 4' wide, on long semi-cylindric petioles, upper ones sessile, all of a dark, shining green, veiny and smooth. Fls. of a golden yellow in all their parts, 1 1/2' diam., few and pedunculate. Outer row of filaments clavate, twice longer than the inner. The young leaves are in great request in spring for greens. May.
ii. C0PTIS, Salisb. Goldthread. (Gr. ĸόπτω, to chop or cut; referring to the parted leaves.) Sepals 5 - 7, oblong, concave, colored, deciduous; petals 5 - 7, small, clavate, tubular at apex; stamens 20 - 25; follicles 5 - 10, stipitate, rostrate, diverging in a stellate manner, 4 - 6 seeded. - Low herbs with radical lvs., and a long, slender, perennial, creeping rhizome.
C. trifolia Salisb. Lvs. 3-foliate; scape 1-flowered; petals much smaller than the sepals. - Penn., N. to Arctic Am. St. subterranean, extensively creeping, golden yellow, very bitter and tonic. Lvs. all radical, lfts. sessile, 4 - 8" long, crenate-mucronate, smooth, coriaceous, common petiole 1 - 2' long. Ped. 3 - 4' high, with a single minute bract above the middle, bearing a single white, starlike flower. The yellow petals are barely distinguishable by their color among the white stamena May. Medicinal.
12. TROLLIUS, L. Globe Flower. (Germ. trol or trollen, globular; alluding to the form of the flowers.) Sepals 5 - 10 - 15, roundish ovate, colored, deciduous; petals 5 - 25, small, linear, tubular at base; stamens ∞, much shorter than the sepals; follicles ∞, subcylindric, sessile, many-seeded.- Smooth, with palmately parted leaves. 1 T. laxus Salisb. Sep. 5, oblong, spreading; petals 15 - 25, shorter than the stamens. - In swamps, Can. to Penn. Not common. About 1 f. high. Lvs.
deeply cleft into 5 segments, which are lobed and cut-dentate. Fls. 1 1/2' diam., not globular. Sep. yellow, greenish outside. Petals very small, orange-colored.
Follicles about 10, crowned with the persistent styles. This is the only American species. Jn. (T. Americanus Muhl.)
2 T. Europaeus L. Sep. 15, incurved petals 5 - 10. as long as the stamens.- From Europe. St. 2 - 3f high. Fls. of a rich yellow. A very ornamental plant, of easy culture from seeds or roots. May, Jn. †
3 T. Asiaticus L. Sepals 10, spreading; petals 10, longer than the stamens.- From Asia. Plant about 2f. high, with ample foliage, and large, deep orange-colored flowers - yellow in some of its varieties. Jn.†
13. HELLEBORUS, L. Hellebore. ('EλεÝv, to cause death, βoρa, food; the poisonous qualities are well known.) Sepals 5, mostly greenish, persistent; petals 8 - 10, very short, tubular, 2-lipped; stamens ∞; stigmas 3 - 10, orbicular; follicles cohering at base, many-seeded.- Lvs. coriaceous, palmately or pedately divided. Fls. large, nodding.
H. viridis L. Glabrous; radical lvs. pedately divided, segm. lanceolate, acute, serrate; cauline lvs. few, palmately parted, nearly sessile; peds. often in pairs; sep. roundish ovate, acute, green. - A European plant, § on Long Island. Stem 2 - 3f high, thick. Apr. †