14. ZANTH0RHIZA, L. Yellow Root. (Gr. ξavθός, yellow; ρіςa, root.) Sepals 5; petals 5, of 2 roundish lobes raised on a pedicel; stamens 5 - 10; ovaries 5 - 10, beaked with the styles, 2 - 3-ovuled; follicles mostly 1-seeded, seed suspended. - Suffruticous, stem and bark yellow, and bitter. Lvs. pinnately divided. Racemes axillary, compound. Fls. small, dark purple, often ♀ ♀ ♂.
Z. apifolia L'Her. River banks N. Y. to Ga. Rt. thick. St. short, woody, leafy above. Lvs. glabrous, about 8' long, including the long petioles. Lfts. 5, 2 - 3' long, sessile, incisely lobed and dentate. Rac. many-flowered, appearing with the leaves. Follicles spreading 1 1/2" long. March, Apr. (Z. simplicissima Mx.)
15. NIGELLA, L. Fennel-flower. Fig. 143. (Lat. niger, black; the color of the seeds, which are used in cookery.) Calyx of 3 sepals, colored; corolla of 5, 3-cleft petals; styles 5; capsules 5, follicular, convex.- Oriental herbs. Lvs. in many linear and subulate segments.
1 N. Damascena L. Fls. in a leafy involucre; carp. 5, smooth, 2-celled, united as far as the ends into an ovoid-globose capsule. A hardy annual of the gardens, to which have been applied the gentle names of "ragged lady," "devil in a bush," Ac. Lvs. twice and thrice pinnatifid, as finely cut as those of the fennel. Fls. terminal, solitary, encompassed and over-topped by a circle of leaves divided like the rest. They are often double, white or pale blue. Jn. - Sept. †
2 N. sativa L. Nutmeg-flower. St. hairy, erect; fls. naked; capsulesmuri-cate, not united. From Egypt. Rather smaller than the last. Jn. - Sept †
16. AQUILEGIA, L. Columbine. (Lat. aquila, the eagle; the spurred petals resemble the talons of a bird of prey.) Sepals 5, equal, ovate, colored, spreading, caducous: petals 5, tubular, dilated at the mouth, the outer margin erect, the inner attached to the torus, extending behind into a long spurred nectary; stamens 30 - 40, the inner ones longer and sterile; styles 5, follicles 5, many-seeded. Lvs. 2 - 3 ternate. Fls. nodding.
1 A. Canadensis L. Glabrous; spurs straight, longer than the limb; sta. and sty. exserted. - This beautiful plant grows wild in most of the States, in dry-soils, generally on the sunny side of rocks. It is cultivated with the greatest ease, and is much more delicate in its foliage and in the hues of its flowers than the common blue columbine. St. branching, a foot high. Lfts. 3 - 9, cuneate, lobed. Fls. terminal, scarlet without and yellow within, pendulous, much embellished by the numerous descending, yellow stamens and styles. Fruit erect. May.
2 A. vulgaris L. Spurs incurved; lvs. nearly smooth, glaucous, biternate; sty. a little longer than the stamens. - Gardens. St. 1 - 2f high, with a profusion of handsome, smooth foliage and large purple flowers. Lfts. bifid and trifld, with rounded lobes. In cultivation the flowers become double, by the multiplication of the hollow, spurred petals. They also vary in color through all shades from purple to white. Jn.† § Eur.
17. DELPHINIUM, L. Larkspur. Fig. 280. (Gr. a dolphin, from the fancied resemblance of the flower.) Sepals 5, colored, irregular, the upper one spurred behind; petals 4, very irregular, the two upper ones protracted into a tubular, nectariferous spur, enclosed in the spur of the calyx; styles 1 - 5; follicles 1 - 5. - Showy herbs. Lvs. palmately divided. Fls. of the cyanic series, never yellow.
§ Leaves many-cleft into linear or subulate divisions...............................
Nos. 1, 2
§ Leaves 3 - 5-parted, the. segments lobed. (*)
* Spur as long as the sepals, ascending, straight............................................
Nos. 3, 4
* Spur longer than the sepals, deflexed at end.....................................................
Nos. 5, 6
1 D. Consolida L. Glabrous, with spreading branches; fls. few, loosely racemed, ped. longer than the bracts: sty. solitary, smooth. - The common larkspur of the gardens, sparingly naturalized, fields and roadsides. Lvs. in numerous linear divisions. Jn., Jl. It has numerous varieties of double and semi-double flowers of various colors. † § Eur.
2 D. azureum Mx. Pubescent or nearly smooth; st. erect; lvs. 3 - 5-parted, many-cleft, with linear-stalked lobes; petioles some dilated at base; rac. strict; petals shorter than sepals, lower one densely bearded, 2-cleft; spur ascending; ovaries 3 - 5. - Native in Wis. and Ark. A very variable species cultivated in gardens. St. 2 - 4f high. Fls. azure colored.†
3 D. exaltatum L. Petioles not dilated at base; lvs. flat, 3-cleft below the middle, segm. cuneiform, 3-cleft at the end, acuminate, the lateral ones often 2-lobed; rac. strict, many-flowered; spur slightly longer than the calyx; pods 3, erect.- Native of the Middle States, rarely of the Northern. St. 3 - 4f high, straight, erect. Fls. of a brilliant purplish blue. It is deservedly esteemed in the flower garden, and is of the easiest culture. Jl., Aug.†
4 D. tricorne Mx. Petioles slightly dilated at base; lvs. 5-parted, divisions 3 - 5 cleft, lobes linear, acutish; rac. few-flowered, loose; petals shorter than sepals, lower ones 2-cleft, densely bearded inside; spur ascending, straight, as long as the calyx; pods 3, spreading in fruit.- Uplands, Penn. to Mo. and Ark. Plant 6 - 18' high, nearly smooth. Lvs. roundish in outline, on long petioles. Fls. 6 - 8, light blue, in a rather loose panicle.
5 D. virescens Nutt. Pubescent; rac. loose, few-flowered; spur longer than (he sepals, ascending, straight, or but slightly deflexed; lower petals deeply 2-cleft; fls. greenish white; ovaries 3. - N. Car. to Ga. W. to Kansas. Plant 8 - 12' high. Lvs. 3 - 5-parted, lobes lanceolate, 2 - 3-cleft, the middle one mostly entire. Petals much shorter than the sepals, the lower densely bearded.
6 D. elatum L. Bee Larkspur. Lvs. downy, 5-lobed, lobes cuneate at base, trifid, cut-dentate; spur curved downwards.- Gardens. St. 5 or 6f. high. Fls.