5 G rivale. L. Pubescent; st. subsimple; radical lvs. lyrate; stip. ovate, acute; fls. nodding, purple; pet. as long as the erect cal. segm.: upper joint of the persistent stylo plumous. - A fine plant, conspicuous among the grass in wet meadows N. and M. States. Rhizome woody, creeping. St. 1 to 2f high, paniculate at top. Root lvs. interruptedly pinnate, inclining to lyrate, 4 to C long, terminal lft. large, roundish, lobed and crenate-deutate. St..lvs. 1 to 3, 3-foliate or lobed, subsessile. Fls. subglobous. Cal. purplish-brown. Petals broad-obcordate, clawed, purplish-yellow, veined. Jn. - The root is aromatic and astringent
6 G. strictum Ait. Hirsute; radical lvs. interruptedly pinnate; cauline 3 to 5-foliate; lfts. obovate and ovate, lobed and toothed; stip. largo and erect; bract-lets linear, shorter than the sep.; pet. roundish, longer than the cal.; sty. smooth, upper joint hairy. - Fields, moist or dry, N. States and Brit. Am. St hispid at base, 2 to 3f high, dichotomous, and with spreading hairs at summit. Rt. lvs. 5 to 8' long, inclining to lyrate, the terminal lft. largest, obovate and lobed. Fls.. numerous, rather large, yellow. Receptacle densely pubescent. Jl, Aug.
G. macrophyllum Willd. Hispid: radical lvs. interruptedly lyrata-pinnate, the terminal lft. much the largest, roundish-cordate, cauline with minute lateral lfts., and a large, roundish, terminal one, all unequally dentate; petals longer than the calyx; recept. nearly smooth. - White Mts. and Brit. Am. St. 1 to 2f high, stout, very hispid and leafy. Terminal lit. 3 to 5' diam. Fls. yellow. Jn., Jl.
8 G. album Gmel. Smoothish or pubescent; root-lvs. ternate or the very lowest simple; upper lvs. simple; lfts. ovate, lobed and toothed, the lower mostly obtuse, upper lanceolate; petals as long as calyx; turns clothed with white bristles. Thickets, com. 2 - 3f. Jl. (G. Virginianum T. & G.)
9 G. Virginianum L. Hirsule with spreading hairs, stout; lvs. pinmte below, then ternate, the upper simple; lfts. incisely lobed. lobes wedge-lanceolate, very acute, cut-dentate, upper lanceolate; petals shorter than the calyx; torus nearly
"naked. Wet thickets. 2 - 3f. July.
19. RU'BUS, L. Bramble. (Celtic rub, red; the color of the fruit of some species.) Calyx spreading, 5-parted; petals 5, deciduous; sta. mens 00, inserted into the border of the disk; ovaries many, with 2 ovules, one of them abortive; achenia pulpy, drupaceous, aggregated into a compound berry; radicle superior.- Half shrubby plants. Sts, usually and armed with prickles. Inflorescence imperfectly ceritri-ugal. Fr. esculent.
§ Fruit inseparable from the juicy, deciduous receptacle. Blackberries (a)
a Stems (mostly) erect, stout, armed with stout, recurved prickles.............
Nos. 1, 2
a Stems procumbent, trailing, mostly with slender, minute prickles...................
Nos. 3 to 5
§§ Fruit separating from the dry, persistent receptacle. Raspberries (b)
b Leaves simple, lobed. Sot prickly.........................................
Nos. 6 to 8
b Leaves compound. - Stems not prickly, herbaceous.............................
- Sterns prickly, shrubby. - Corollas single........................
Nos. 10 - 12
- Corollas double...................
1 R. villosus Ait. High Blackberry. Pubescent, viscid and prickly st. an. gular; lfts: 3 to 5, ovate, acuminate, serrate, hairy both sides; petioles prickly; cal. acuminate, shorter than the petals; rac. leafless, about 20-flowered. - A well known, thorny shrub, Can. and U. S. Sts. tall and slender, branching, recurved at top, 3 to 6f high. Lfts. 2 1/2 to 4' by 1-1/2 to 2 1/2', terminal one on a long petiolule, the others on short ones or none. Pedicels slender, 1' long. Totals white, obovate or oblong, obtuse. Fr. consisting of about 20 roundish, shining, black, fleshy carpels, closely connected into an ovate or oblong head, subacid, well-flavored, ripe in Aug. and Sept.
β. Frondosus Torr. Lfts. incisely serrate; rac. with a few simple lvs, or leafy bracts at base; fls. about 10 in each cluster, the terminal one opening first, as in all the species, the lowest next, and the highest but one last. Fr. more acid and with lower carpels. (R. frondosus Bw.)
humifusus T. & (i. St. procumbent or trailing; lvs. smaller; ped. few* flowered. - Often occurs southward with the erect forms, and with R. trivia lis, from which it is sometimes hard to be distinguished.
2 R cuneifolius Ph. Sand I lackberry. St. erect, shrubby, armed with re curved prickles; lvs. 3-foliate, and with the young branches and pet. pubescent beneath; lfts. cuneate-obovate, entire at base, dentate above, subplicate, tomentous beneath; rac. loose, few-flowered. - A low shrub, 2 to 3f high, in sandy woods, L. I, to Fla. Petioles often prickly. Lfts. rarely 5, 1 to 2' long, 1/2 as wide, obtuse, or with a short acumination. Petals white or roseate, 3 times as long as the cal. Fr. black, juicy, well-flavored, ripe in Jl., Aug. Fls. May, Jn.
3 R. hispidus L. St. slender, reclining or prostrate, hispid with retrorse bristles; lvs. 3-foliate, rarely quinate. smooth and green both sides; lfts. coarsely serrate, obovate, mostly obtuse, thickish, persistent; ped. corymbous, many flowered, with filiform pedicels and short bracts; fls. and fr. small. - In damp woods, Can. to Car. Sts. slender, trailing several feet, with suberect branches 8 to 12' high. Lfts. 1 to 2' long, 1/2 as wide, nearly sessile, persistent through the winter. Fls. white. Fr. dusky-purple, sour. May, Jn. (R, sempervirens Bw.)
β. setosus T. & G. Lfts. oblanceolate, rather narrow. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2' long, tapering, and (like variety a) entire at base, sharply serrate above. Fr. red. (R. setosus Bw.)
4 R. Canadensis L. Northern Dewberry. St. procumbent or trailing, a little prickly; lvs. 3-foliate, rarely quinate, lfts. elliptical or ihomboid-oval acute or acuminate, thin, unequally cut-serrate; pedicels solitary, elongated, somewhat corymbed; fr. large, black. - Common in dry, stony fields, Can. to Va., trailing several yards upon the ground. Lfts. light green and membranous, nearly sessile, 1 to 1 1/2' long, 1/2 as wide. Fls. large, on slender pedicels. Petals obovate, white, twice as long as the calyx. Fr. 1/2 to 1' diam., very sweet and juicy in Jl. and Aug. Fls. May. (R. trivialis Ph.)
5 R. trivialis Mx. Southern Dewberry. Procumbent, trailing. with rooting runners, shrubby, armed with bristles and recurved prickles; lvs. 3-foliate and quinate, persistent, lfts. coriaceous, ovate-oblong or oval, acute or obtuse, sharply serrate; ped. 1 to 3-flowered; fls. large, pet roundish-obovate; sep. oblong, obtuse.