13. PY'RUS, L. Pear, Apple, etc. (Celtic peren; Anglo-Saxon pere; Fr. poire; Lat. pyrus; Eng. pear.) Calyx urceolate, limb 5-cleft; petals 5, roundish; styles 5 (2 or 3), often united at base; pome closed, 2 to 5 carpeled, fleshy or baccate; carpels cartilaginous, 2-seeded. - Trees or shrubs. Lvs. simple or pinnate. Fls. white or rose-colored, in cymous corymbs.
§ Pyrus. Lvs. simple, glandless; styles distinct; pome pyriform............................
§ Malus. Lvs. simple, glandless; styles united below; fr. globous............................
Nos. 2 - 4
§ Aronia. Lvs. simple, glandular on the midvein; styles united, etc..........................
§ Sorbus. Lvs. pinnate; styles 2 to 5, distinct...........................
Nos. 6, 7
1 P. communis L. Pear Tree. Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, obscurely crenate, glabrous and polished above, acute or acuminate; corymbs racemous; cal. and pedicels pubescent; sty. 5, distinct and villous at base. - Tree usually taller than the apple, 20 to 35f high. Branches ascending. Lvs. 2 to 3 1/2' long, 2/3 as wide; petioles 1 to 2' long. Fls. white. Native in Europe, where in its wild state the fruit is small and unpalatable. The Romans cultivated 36 varieties (Pliny) but, like the apple, varieties without end are now raised from the seed of this delicious fruit.‡ ovate and oblong, distinctly lobed; (fr. not seen). - Sent from Iowa by Dr.
2 P. Malus L. Common Apple Tree. Lvs. ovate or oblong-ovate, serrate, not lobed-, downy, the veins all incurved; corymbs subumbellate; pedicels and calyx villous-tomentous; pet. with short claws; sty. 5, united and villous at base; pome globous. - Native in Europe, and almost naturalized here. Tree 20 to 25f high (in thickets 50 to 60). Branches rigid, crooked, spreading. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, § as wide, petioles 1/2 to 1' long. Fls. expanding with the lvs., fragrant, large, clothing the tree in their light roseate hue, making ample amends for its roughness and deformity. - The Romans had 22 varieties (Pliny) but the number is now greatly increased. Probably nearly 1000 varieties arc cultivated in the U. S. ‡
3 P. coronaria L. Sweet-scented Crab-tree. Lvs. ovate, rounded at base, incisely serrate, often sublobate, straight-veined, pubescent when young, at length smoothish, on slender petioles; pet clawed; pedicels glabrous; sep. subulate; sty. united ana woolly at the base; fr. as well as fls. very fragrant, corymb ous. - Borders of woods, Mid., West. and South. States, A small tree 10 to 20f ■ high, with spreading branches. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, half as wide, petioles 1/2 to 1' long. Fls. very large, rose-colored, in loose corymbs of 5 to 10. Fr. as largo (1 to 1 1/2' diain.) as a small apple, yellowish, hard and sour but esteemed for preserves. May. ‡ β. Ioensis. Lvs. (when young), pedicels and calyx densely tomentous. Lvs.
Cousens. 4 P. angustifolia Ait. Lvs. lanceolate, acute, or obtuse at base, glabrous, scarcely veiny, crenate-sorrate or almost entire, on short petioles; corymbs racemous, few (4 to 7)-flowered; pedicels and catyx outside glabrous; sep. ovale, villous within; sty. distinct, villous at base. - Penn. to Ga. and La. Tree 20 to 30f high (in woods near Ogeechee causeway). Lvs. about 4 times longer than wide. Fls. similar to No. 3, rose-purple, large, fine and fragrant Mar. - T. & G. describe a variety with the styles glabrous.
5 P. arbutifolia L. f. Choke Berry. Lvs. oblong-obovate or oval-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, crenate serrulate, smooth above, tomentous beneath when young, attenuate at base into a short petiole; ped. and cal., when young, tomentous; fr-pyriform or subglobous, dark red. - Low, moist woodlands, U. S. and Can. A shrub 5 to 8f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, 1/2 as wide, often subacuminate, subcoria-ceous, serratures small, with a glandular, incurved point; petioles 2 to 4" long. Fls. white, in compound, terminal corymbs of 12 or more. Fr. astringent, as large as a currant. May, Jn. †
β. melanocarpa Hook. Lvs., cal. and ped. glabrous or nearly so; fr. blackish-purple. - Swamps. Height 2 to 4f (P. melanocarpa Willd.)
6 P. Americana DC. Mountain Ash. Lfts. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, mucronately serrate, smooth, subsessile; cymes compound, with numerous fls.; pome small, globous; sty. 3 to 5. - A small tree in mountain woods, N. Eng. and Mid. States. Trunk 15 to 20f high, covered with a reddish brown bark. Lvs. 8 to 12' long, composed of 9 to 15 leaflets; lfts. 2 to 3 1/2' by 1/2 to 1', subopposite, often acute, on petioles 1" in length. Fls. small, white, in terminal cymes of 50 to 100 or more. Fr. scarlet, 2 to 3" diam., beautiful. May. †
β. microcarpa T. & G. Fr. smaller. (P. microcarpa DC.) 7 P. Aucuparia L. English Mountain Ash. Lfts. as in P. Americana, except that they are always smooth on both sides, and, with the serratures, less acute at apex; fls. corymbous; fr. globous. - Native of Europe. A tree 20 to 40f high, often cultivated as well as the last species, for its ornamental clusters of scarlet berries. It is a tree of larger size and rougher bark than the last, but is hardly to be distinguished by the foliage, flowers or fruit. †
14. CYDO'NIA, Tourn. Quince. (Named from Cydonia, a town in Crete, from whence it was brought.) Calyx urceolate, limb 5-cleft; petals 5; styles 5; pome 5-carpeled, carpels cartilaginous, many-seeded, seeds covered with mucilaginous pulp. - Trees and shrubs. Lvs. simple. Fls. mostly solitary.
1 C. vuigaris Pers. Lvs. oblong-ovate, obtuse at base, acute at apex, very entire, smooth above, tomentous beneath; ped. solitary, and, with the cal. woolly; pome tomentous, obovoid. - Shrub 8 to 12f (rarely 201') high, with crooked, straggling branches. Lvs. about as large as those of the pear tree. Fls. white, with a tinge of purple, large, terminal. Fr. large, lengthened at base, clothed with a soft down, yellow when ripe, highly esteemed for jellies and preserves. The plant is reared from layers. ‡ Eur.
2 C. Japonica Pers. Japan Quince. Lvs. glabrous, shining, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, acute at each end, serrulate; stip. reniform; spine short, straight; fls. axillary, sabsessile. - From Japan. A low shrub, beautiful or even brilliant when in blcom. Fls. about as large as in No. 1, varying in color from the richest scarlet to a delicate blush or white. It is hardy and easily reared. Apr. (Pyrus Japonica L.)