15. ROSA, Tourn. Rose. (Celtic rhos, red; Gr. ; Lat, rosa; Eng. rose.) Calyx tube urceolate, fleshy, contracted at the orifice, limb 5-cleft, the segments somewhat imbricated in aestivation, and mostly with a leafy appendage; petals 5 (greatly multiplied by culture); achenia ∞, bony, hispid, included in and attached to the inside of the fleshy tube of the calyx. - Shrubby and prickly. Lvs. unequally pinnate. Stip. mostly adnate to the petiole.
Obs. Our innumerable varieties of garden Roses have mostly originated with the few species mentioned below. To define these varieties in order to their recognition would generally be impossible, for their forms are as evanescent as their names are arbitrary. All that the author hero proposes is to aid the botanist in tracing back each form to the species whence it sprung. This will be easily done in all cases except with the hybrids.
§ Styles cohering in an exserted column. Climbers (a).
§ Styles not cohering. - Stipules nearly free and caducous (b).
- Stipules adnate to the petiole. - Prickles recurved (e).
- Prickles straight (d).
a Leaflets 3 to 5, mostly 3. Native and cultivated...................................
a Leaflets 5 to 9. - Stipules and sepals mostly entire.............................
- Stipules pectinate. Sepals entire...............................
.. . No. 3
- Stipules entire. Sepals pinnatifid............................
b Penduncle very short, enveloped in bracts. Leaflets 5 to 9.....................
. , . No. 4
b Penduncle elongated, bractless. Leaflets 3 to 5. - Thorny, mostly climbing
..Nos. 2, 19
- Thornless, erect.................
C Leaflets not at all glandular. Shrubs erect, - wild............................
Nos. 13. 14
C Leaflets glandular and fragrant beneath. - Flowers single..................
Nos. 9, 10
Nos. 15 - 17
d Wild, native Roses, 1 - 3f erect.......................................
Nos. 5, 6, 7
d Cultivated exotics, climbing (No. 20) or erect..........................
Nos. 21 - 23
1 R. setigera Mx. Michigan or Prairie Rose. Branches elongated, ascend, glabrous; spines few, strong, stipular; lfts. large, 3 to 5, ovate; stip. narrow, adherent, acuminate; fls. corymbous; cal. glandular, segm. subentire; sty. united; fr. globous. - This splendid species is a native of Mich, and other States W. and S. About 20 varieties are enumerated in cultivation, among which is the Baltimore Belle. They are hardy, of rapid growth, and capable of being trained 12 to 20f. Fls. in very large clusters, changeable in hue, nearly scentless, and of short duration.
2 R. laevigata Mx. Cherokee Rose. Glabrous and polished; branches long, trailing, armed with very strong, curved prickles; lfts. 3, rarely 5, coriaceous, evergreen, shining, elliptical, sharply serrate; stip. free, setaceous, deciduous; lis. solitary; cal. bristly, sep entire. - In hedges, etc., Fla. (Tallahassee), N. to Tenn., etc. Sts. very long, numerous, and with their broad, hooked pricks, make the most impervious of all hedges. Fls. often 3' diam., white. Apr. - Common also in gardens. § China,
3 R. multiflora Seringe. Many-flowered, or Japan Rose. Branches, ped. and cal. tomentous; shoots very long; prickles slender, scattered; lfts. 5 to 7, ovate-lanceolate, soft and slightly rugous; stip. pectinate, fimbriate; fls. corymbous, often numerous; flower-bud ovoid-globous; sep. short; sty. exserted, scarcely cohering in an elongated pilous column; pet. white, varying through roseate to purple. - Grows in hedges with No. 2, about Tallahassee (Plank road to Bellair). Shrub with luxuriant shoots, easily trained to the height of 15 to 20f, - Among its varieties are the Seven Sisters, Boursault's, etc. § Japan.
4 R. bracteata Linn. Macartney Rose. Branches erect, tomentous; prickles recurved, often double; lfts. 5 to 9, obovate, subserrate, coriaceous, smooth, and shining; stip. fimbriate-sctaceous; fis. solitary, terminal, with large bracts subtending the calyx, ped. and cal. tomentous; fr. globous, large, orange. - Naturalized in hedges near N. Orleans (Riddell in T. and G.) Fls. large, white. § China. Varieties with cream-colored to scarlet fls.
5 R. lucida Ehrh. Shining, or Wild Rose. St. low; prickles scattered, setaceous, the stipular largest, straight; lfls. 5 to 9, elliptical, simply serrate, smooth and shining above; petioles glabrous or subhispid; fls. generally in pairs (1 to 3); fr. depressed, globous, and with the peduncles, glandular-hispid. - Shrub 1 to 3f high, in dry woods or thickets throughout the U. S., slender, with greenish branches. Lfts. acute or obtuse, odd one petiolate, the others sessile. Sepals often appendiculate, as long as the large, obeordate. pale-red petals. Fr. small, red. Jn. Jl. (R. Carolina Mx., noc Bw.)
β. parviflora. Lfts. oval, mostly very obtuse, paler beneath; petioles smooth or pubescent. (R. parvifiora Ehrh.)
6 R. nitida Willd. Wild Rose. St. low, densely armed with straight, slender, reddish prickles; lfts. 5 to 9, narrow-lanceolate, smooth and shining, sharply serrate; stip. narrow, often reaching to the lower lfts.; fls. solitary; cal. hispid; fr. globous. - In swamps, N. Eng. (Lexington, Mass.) Sts. 1 to 2f high, reddish from its dense armor of prickles. Lfts. 1 to 1 1/2' long, subsessile, odd one petio-lulate. Stip. 5 to 8" long, adnate to the petiole, each side. Fls. with red, obcor-date petals. Fr. scarlet. Jn.
7 R. blanda Ait. Bland Rose. Taller; st. armed with few, scattered, straight deciduous prickles; lfts. 5 to 7, oblong, obtuse, serrate, smooth, but not shining above, paler and pubescent on the veins beneath; petiole unarmed; stip. dilated; fls. mostly in pairs (1 to 3); ped. short, and with the cal. smooth and glaucous; fr. globous. - Shrub, found 011 dry, sunny hills, N. and M. States. Sts. 2 to 3f high, with reddish bark. Fls. rather large. Sep. entire, shorter than the reddish, emarginate petals. Bracts large, downy. Jn.
8 R. Carolina L. Carolina Rose. Swamp Rose. St. tall, glabrous, with strong, recurved, stipular prickles; lfts. 5 to 9, elliptical, acute, sharply and doubly serrate, glaucous beneath, not shining above, petioles hairy or subaculeate; fls. corymbous; fr. depressed-globous, and with the peduncles hispid. - Swamps and damp woods, forming thickets, Can. and U. S. Sts. 4 to 8f high, bushy, with reddish branches. Prickles mostly 2 at the base of the stipules. Lfts. 1 to 2' long, 1/2 as wide, rather variable in form. Fls. in a leafy corymb of 3 to 7. Petals obcordate, large, varying between red and white. Fr. dark red. Jn., Jl.
9 R. rubiginosa L. Eglantine. Sweet Brier. St. glabrous, armed with very strong, recurved prickles, with many weaker ones; lfts. 5 to 7, broad-oval, with feruginous glands beneath; fls. mostly solitary; sep. permanent; fr. obovoid, and ped. glandular-hispid. - A stout, prickly shrub, 4 to 8f high, in fields and roadsides throughout the U. S. The older stems arc bushy, much branched, 1' diam., the younger shoots nearly simple, declined at top. Lfts. small, serrate (the glands beneath not always present), when rubbed very fragrant. Fls. light-red, fragrant. Fr. orange red. Jn. There are about 25 cultivated varieties, single and double. § Eur. (R. suaveolens Ph.)