2 S. discoidea (Ell.) Villous-pubescent, hoary; lvs. ovate, petiolate, coarsely serrate, the upper ovate-lanceolate; rac. erect, in a virgate or thyreoid pan.; hds. discoid, about 12 - flowered; scales downy-canescent, the acute herbaceous tips squarrous-spreading. - Ga. and Fla. (uplands), to La, Plant 3 to 4f high, remarkable for its rayless fls. and squnrrous aster-like involucre. Lower lvs. 3 to 4' long, gradually reduced upwards. Sept., Oct.
3 S. brachyphylla Chapm. Rough-pubescent; lvs. numerous, appressed-ser-rate, spatulate, oval and ovate, glabrous; rac. socund, in virgate panicles; scales erect (not spreading), obtuse, smooth; hds. discoid; disk-flowers 5 to 6. Mid. Fla., uplands (Chapman). Tall (4 to 6f), with erect leafy branches. St. lvs. 1' long, diminishing upwards. (Allied to S. altissima.)
4 S. squarrosa Muhl. St. stout, simple, densely pubescent above; lvs. smooth, lower very broad, oval-spatulate, serrate, acute, upper lanceolate-elliptic, highest, entire; rac. glomerate, rigid and pubescent; scales rigid, oblong, squarrous with spreading green hds; fids, many flowered; rays 10 - 12, elongated. - A handsome species, found on rocky hills, Can. to Penn. Stem 2 - 5f high. Heads very large, forming a large terminal spike of short, dense, axillary fascicles or racemes. Sept.
5 S. squarrulosa (T. & G.) Pubescent, striate; lvs. rough, numerous, oval or lanceolate, the upper entire, the lower serrate, all abruptly contracted at base but scarcely petiolate; hds. large (20 to 25-flowered), in a terminal, virgate raceme; rays 6 to 10 ; scales linear or lance-subulate, with loose herbaceous tips, the outer spreading, bract-like. - Uplands, N. Car. to Fla. and La. St. 2 to 31 high, often branched above. Lvs. 1 to 2' long. Aug., Sept. (S. squarrosa Nutt. S. petio-laris Ait. ?)
6 S. bicolor L. Hairy; st. simple; lvs. elliptical entire, acute at each end, lower serrate, short-stalked; rac. short, dense, axillary, paniculate-virgate above; invol. scales obtuse; rays about 8, whitish. - Woods and dry hills, Can., N. Mid., & W. States. Remarkably distinguished among the solidagos by having white or cream-colored rays. St. 2f high, a little hairy. Lvs. hairy on both sides, mostly entire, gradually reduced in size upwards. Axillary clusters approximating above into a terminal, interrupted spike. Rays short and obscure, JI, Aug. (Aster bicola Nees.)
ß. Hirsuta. Fls. all yellow. - Penn. (S. hirsuta, Nutt.)
7. S. Buckleyi Torn & Gr. Villous-pubescent; lvs. oblong, serrate, acute at each end, subsessile; clusters axillary, loose, much shorter than the lvs.; ped. villous; scaks glabrous, acutish, rays 4 to 6, disk-flowers 9 to 12; ach. compressed, glabrous. - Interior of Ala. (Buckley). St. 2 to 3f high? Lvs. as large as in No. 8, the hds. larger. Oct.
8 S. latifolia Muhl. St. somewhat flexuous, angular, smooth below, pubescent above; lvs. broadly ovate, acuminate at each end, deeply serrate, pubescent beneath ; petioles margined; rac. axillary and terminal; ach. silky pubescent.-A singular and well-marked species common in dry woods and by rocky streams, U. S. and Can. St. slender, simple, about 2f high. Lvs. 3 to 5' by 2 to 4', with acute, often long-acuminate serratures. Clusters very short, axillary, the stem ending with a long terminal one. Hds. few. Sept. - Variable. The clusters are often long and loose, and exceeding the lvs. (S. ambigua Ait. S. macrophylla Bw.) ß. pubens. Pubescent, becoming densely so above, especially the scale Mts. of N. Car. (Curtis) - (S. pubeas Curtis.)
9 S. caesia Ait. St. erect, round, smooth and glaucous, often flexuous; lvs. smooth, linear-lanceolate, lower ones serrate; roc. axillary, erect, ach. minutely pubescent. - A very elegant species, in thickets and dry woods, Can. and U. S. Stem 2 to 4f high, of a bluish-purple color, terete and slender, somewhat flexuous, simple or branched. Leaves 2 - 5' long, ending in a long point, sessile, glaucous beneath. Racemes axillary, numerous, short. Flowers of a deep, rich yellow. Rays 3 - 6, once and a half the length of the involucre. Aug. (S. axillaris, Ph.)
ß. flexicaulis. St. flexuous, angular; Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, longer than the subcapitate racemes. - Leaves about 2' by V. Rays pale yellow. (S. flexicaulis, Ph. not of L.) y. Curtish. St tall, strict, striate-angular. - Mts. N. Car. Height 3 to 5f. (S. Curtisii, T. & G.)
10 S. thyrsoidea Meyer. St. simple, flexuous, very smooth, pubescent above; lvs. smooth, ovate, coarsely and sharply serrate, acute, the lower on long petioles, the upper subsessile, lanceolate; rac. mostly simple, short; hds. large, with conspicuous rays. - A coarse showy golden rod, in woods, White Mts., N. H., Wil-loughby and Green Mts., Vt. It is remarkable for the long slender stalks of the lower ovate leaves, and for the large hds. which exceed in size most other species. St 1 to 3f high, racemes axillary and terminal, usually in a thyrse-like panicle. Aug. (S. virgaurea, Bw.)
11 S. Virgaurea L. ß. alpina (Bw.) St flexuous, furrowed, pubescent at top; st Ivs. lanceolate, serrate, lower ones oval; contracted to a petiole, rac. erect, ray elongated; hds. large, about 30-flowered; scales very thin, acute. This is the only species common to the two continents. One of its numerous varieties is seen scattered here and there on the lower summits of the White Mts., N. H., Essex Mts., N. Y.. L. Superior, C. W., also? Mts. of N. Car. The hds. are few, sometimes one only, but larger than those of most other species, and of a rich, golden yellow. St. often purple, 2 to 3' high, simple, with axillary and terminal flowers. Aug. - (S. glomerata Mx. whose description answers well to the larger specimens of S. virgaurea.)
12 S. humilis Ph. Glabrous; st. simple, erect; radical Ivs. oblanceolate, petiolate, obtuse and crenate-serrato at apex; the cauline oblanceolate, and lanceolate, acute; rac. simple or paniculate; hds. middle size, about 12-flowered; scales oblong, obtuse; rays short. - Rocks along mountain streams, Vt., N. H., to Newfoundland. St. 6 to 12' high, somewhat glutinous. Rac. slender, strict Lvs. of the stem about 2' by 3 to 4", serrulate. Hds. 6 to 8 rayed. Aug., Sept.