5 V. ovalifolia Torr. & Gr. Lvs. lance-oval or lance-oblong, acute, sessile, sharply serrate, veiny ; cyme loose, fastigiate ; hds. rather large, scales appressed, acute or mucronate, much shorter than the pappus. - Mid. Fla. (Chapman). St. 3 to 4f high. Hds. about 20-flowered, with a purplish pappus.
6 V. oligophylla Mx. St. nearly leafless, slender; lvs. mostly radical, oblong-obovate, dentate-serrate, the 2 or 3 cauline lvs. bract-like, lanceolate, serrulate: cyme loose, somewhat dichotomous, with few heads; scales with spreading, acuminate tips. - Swampy pine woods, N. Car. to Fla. Sts. about 2f high. Jn., Jl.
2. STOKE SIA, L'Her. (In honor of Jonathan Stokes, M. D., an English botanist.) Flowers all tubular, the marginal larger, ray-like, irregular; scales of the involucre imbricated, in several rows, the outer spinulous and leaf-like; receptacle naked; fruit 4-angled ; pappus of 4 or 5 awn-like, rigid, deciduous scales. - Ц Erect, with a downy stem, alternate lvs., and terminal, large heads of showy blue fls.
S. cyama L'Her. A rare and ornamental plant, found in S. Car., Ga., and La, rarely in gardens. It resembles a Centaurea. Height about 2f. Lvs. sessile, entire, glabrous, the bracts spinulous at base, gradually passing into the scales. Outer corollas with the innercleft deeper, limb spreading, palmate, imitating rays.
3. ELEPHANTOPUS, L. Elephant's-foot. (Gr. , elephant, , foot; alluding to the form of the leaves in some species.) Heads
3 to 5-flowered, glomerate into a compound head with leafy bracts; flowers all equal; involucre compressed, the scales about 8, oblong, dry, in 2 series ; corolla 5-cleft, one of the clefts deeper than the others, segments acuminate; achenia ribbed, hairy; pappus chafty-setaceous. - Ц Erect, with alternate subsessile lvs. Cor. violet purple. 1 E. Carolinianus Willd. St. much branched, leafy, hairy; lvs. scabrous and somewhat hairy, ovate or oval-oblong, obtuse, crenate-serrate. lower ones on petioles, upper one subsessile; hds. terminal and subterminal. - Dry soils, Penn.,
Ohio to Fla. and La. St. 20 to 30' high, flexuous, the branches divaricate. Lower stem Ivs. 5 to 7' by 3 to 5', upper about 2' by 1 1/4', the highest oblong, smaller, subtending the glomerules in the form of an in vol. Scales 3" long. Jl. - Sept. 2 E. tomentosus L. St. hirsute, nearly leafless, simple or dichotomous above; radical lvs. large, hirsute-tomentous, oblong-spatulate or obovate, crenate, narrowed to a winged petiole, cauline small and bract-like at the forks, or none; bracts thick, broad-ovate, scales rigid. - S. Car.. Ga., Fla., to La., common in the pine woods. St. 1 to 2f, often quite simple, with a single, large glomerule at top. The stiff, acute scales are 5" long. Jl. - Sept. - Varies with more branches and leaves, towards No. 1.
Tribe 2. EUPATORIACEae.
4. AGERA'TUM L. (Gr. a (privative) and , old age ; i. e., fadeless ; misapplied in this case.) Heads ∞-flowered, , discoid ; scales linear, imbricated, pointed; receptacle naked; corollas all tubular; fruit (cypsela) 5-angled, narrowed at base; pappus 5 to 10 chaffy, awned scales. - Mostly tropical, with opposite, petioled lvs. and corymbed heads.
A. conyzoides L. Branching; lvs. ovate, tooth-crenate, acute or cordate at base, somewhat rugous; pappus of 5 subulate, denticulate scales as long as the cor. but much shorter than the conspicuous branches of the style. Near Savannah (Pond). Sts. 12 to 18' high, downy. Lower petioles half as long as the leaves. Fls. blue or white. Apr., Jn. § The cultivated variety called A. Mexi-eana has nearly all its leaves cordate, and flowers always ? blue.
5. SCLEROL'EPIS, Cass. (Gr. , hard, , scale.) Head ∞-flowered, , discoid; scales equal, linear, in 2 series; receptacle naked ; corolla 5-toothed, enlarged at the throat; branches of the style much exerted; achenia 5-angled,. crowned with a cup-shaped pappus of 5 obtuse, horny scales. - Ц Aquatic, glabrous, simple, with 1 to 3 terminal hds. Lvs. verticillate ; fls. purple.
S. verticillata Cass. In shallow water, N. J. to Fla. St. decumbent at base, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. in numerous whorls of about 6' linear-setaceous, entire, 1' in length. Head commonly solitary at the top of the stem. Jl. - Sept. (Sparga-nophorus Mx.)
6. CARPHEPH'ORUS, Cass. (Gr. , chaff, , to bear; for its chaffy receptacle.) Heads (about 20-flowered), involucre, flowers and fruit as in Liatris ; receptacle chaffy ; pales narrow, 3-veined, rigid, shorter than the flowers. - Ц Sts. simple, leafy, corymbous at top, with middle sized heads of purple flowers. (Liatris, Mx. Ell.)
* Scales of the involucre acute, downy - tomentous....
* Scales of the involucre rounded - obtuse, nearly glabrous....
1 C. pseudo-liatris Cass. Slender, erect, tomentous-pubeseent; Ivs. nearly glabrous, linear-subulate, rigid, the cauline gradually shorter, closely oppressed to and covering the stem ; hds. few in a racemous cyme: scales rigid, ovate-lanceolate, appressed. - Gadsden Co., Fla. to Ala. and La. Plant strictly erect, 2f high, its tomentum grayish. Hds. 15 to 20-flosvered. (L. squamosa Nutt.)
2 C. tomentosus Torr. & Gr. Erect, downy and corymbous above ; rt. Ivs. lanceolate, peliolate; cauline lance-ovate, sessile, erect, the upper pubescent; scales lance, ovate, acute, mostly appressed, glandular tomentous. - Swamps, Va. to Ga. St. 2f high, bearing a loose, spreading corvmb. Pales linear, pappus purplisk Sept., Ocr. (L. Walteri, Ell.)