§ Rays large ,drooping. Disk columnar, atleast in fruit....
§ Rays spreading. Disk dark purple, conical or rounded. (*)
* Leaves deeply lobed or parted, the upper undivided......
* Leaves undivided. - Pales of the disk whitish-downy...
- Pales dark purple as well as the flowers....
. .Nos. 7-9
1 R. nitida Nutt. Glabrous, shining, subsimple, lvs. thick, lanceolate, acute, the lower subserrulate, petiolate, upper sessile or clasping; hds. few or solitary, with long, drooping rays; pappus coroniform, lacerate at summit. - Ga., Fla., to La. A handsome herb. 3 to 5f high, in swampy thickets. Lvs. with prominent veins and vein lets. Hds. on long naked peduncles. Rays 9 to 12, nearly 2' long. Disk dark purple, oblong-ovate or spicate in fruit Jn., Jl.
2 R laciniata L. Glabrous; lower lvs. pinnate, segments 3-lobed, upper one3 ovate ; pappus crenate. - In the edges of swamps and ditches, Can. and U. S. A tall, showy plant, resembling Helianthus, from which, however, it is readily distinguished by its conical, at length ovate disk. St. round, branching, 6 to 8f high. Lvs. alternate, ample, rough, upper ones generally ovate, the rest variously divided, toothed or cut, petiolate. Fls. large, terminal Rays 1 1/2 to 2' long, oblanceolate, bright yellow, spreading or drooping. Aug. (R. laevigata Ph.)
3 R. subtomentosa Ph. St. branching, tomentous-pubescent; lvs. petiolate, hispid-scabrous above, softly subtomentous beneath, serrate, the lower deeply 3-lobed or 3-parted, upper undivided, ovate, acuminate; hds. corymbous; scales numerous, spreading; rays 10 to 15, spreading; disk at length globous; pales bearded, shorter than the corollas. - Prairies, etc, Western and S. W. States. St. 3 to 5f high, angular, marked with brown lines. Lvs. 3 to 5' long, on petioles 1 to 24" long. Rays orange yellow, about 1' long. Jl., Aug.
4 R. triloba L. Hirsute; branches panieled spreading; lower cauline lvs. mostly 3-lobed, coarsely serrate, acuminato; upper ovate lanceolate somewhat clasping, serrate or entire; radical ones ovate or oval, obtuse, crenate-dentate or incisely lobed, petiolate; hds. rather small, disk dark purple; at length ovoid; rays 8, broad-oval, rather longer than the linear, reflexed scales. - Fields, Mid. and W. States. A handsome species, 2 to 4f high, very branching. Lvs. 2 to 4' long, 3-veined. Rays deep yellow, 6 to 10" long, § as wide. Chaff cuspi-date-awned at the summit. Aug., Sept
5 R. mollis Ell. Soft-woolly or tomentous all over; lvs. oblong, sessile or clasping ; scales linear lanceolate, reflexed; rays 15 to 20, elongated; disk dark purple except the canescent pales. W. Ga. An interesting species, confined as yet to a narrow limit. Plant whitened with down, 2 to 3f high. Lvs. small. lids, large; rays an inch long. Pappus almost none. Aug. - Oct.
6 R. Heliopsidis Torr. & Gr. Slightly downy; lvs. ovate or oval. 5-veined, mostly obtuse, petiolate; scales obtuse, squarrous; rays 10 to 12; disk conical, dark purple except the downy canescent pales. - Barrens, W. Ga. and Ala. Plant
1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, the lower on long petioles. Pappus scarcely any. Aug., Sept.
7 R. hirta L. Very hirsute or hispid; st. simple or somewhat branched; ped. naked; lvs. ovale-spatulate, 3-veined, petiolate, mostly entire, tho upper ones sessile, ovate-lanceolate; invol. scales numerous, narrow, imbricated in 3-rows; rays spreading, oval; pales bearded. - A showy plant in dry soils, Can. W. to Fla., rarely in N. Eng. Sts. subsimple or branching from the base, each branch leal-less towards the summit, and bearing a large head with 12 to 15 bright yellow rays. These are an inch long, and surround a broadly conical disk of dark brown chaff and flowers, † Jl., Sept.
8 R. fulgida Ait St. hirsute with rigid hairs; branches slender, naked above: lvs. strigous-pubescent, remotely dentate, radical petiolate, ovate, 5-veined. cauline lance-oblong, tapering to the sessile, subclasping base; scales oblong, spreading, as long as the spreading rays; pales glabrous, linear-oblong, obtuse. - Mountains, Peun. to Ohio and Ga. St. 1 to 3f high. Rays 12 to 14, scarcely longer than the leafy involucre, deep orange-yellow. Jl. - Oct. † (R. chrysomcla Mx. R. spatulata Ph.)
9 R. speciosa Wender. St. hispidly hirsute; branches slender, elongated, naked above; lvs. scabrous-pubescent, strongly dentate acuminate, radical ovate, 5-veined, on long petioles, cauline ovate and lanceolate, 3-veined, upper sessiio; scales lance-linear, much shorter than the spreading rays; pahs linear-oblong, acule.- Borders of woods, I11. (Jenney), Ohio to Penn. A large and very showy species,
2 to 4f high. Lvs. rather thin, radical, 4 to 5' by 3 to 4', the teeth mucronulatc; petioles 6 to 10' long. Rays about 18, oblong, linear, bright yellow. Aug.- Oct. †
53. LEP'ACHYS, Raf. Heads radiate; involucre in one series of linear scales; ray flowers few, neutral, disk perfect; receptacle columnar, chatty; chaff obtuse, and bearded at apex ; pappus 0 ; fertile achenia compressed, 1 to 2-winged. - Ц Lvs. alternate, pinnatelv divided, Hds, of fls. yellow, with long, drooping rays.
L. pinnata Torr. & Gr. Scabrous; lvs. all pinnate, the divisions 3 to 7, some of the lower ones 2-parted, the rest undivided; rays elongated. - In dry soils, Western N. Y., W. and S. States. St. 2 to 4f high, slender, furrowed and hispid. Hds. very showy. Rays yellow, about 2' in length, pendulous, the disk ovate, purple. Jn. - Sept. (Rudbeckia Mx. Obeliscaria Cass.)
54. HELIAN'THUS, L. Sun-flower. (Gr. , the sun, flower.) Heads radiate, ray-fls. neutral, disk ; scales of the involucre imbricated in several series; receptable flat or convex, the chaff persistent, embracing the achenia; pappus of 2 chaffy awns, deciduous ; achenia compressed or 4-sided, not margined. - Herbs mostly If, rough. Lvs. opposite, the upper often alternate, mostly tripli-veined. Rays yellow, disk yellow or purple.
§ Disk (its corollas and pales) dark purple, mostly convex, (a)
a Herbs annual. Leaves chiefly alternate....
a Herbs perennial. Leaves opposite - Scales acuminte...
..Nos 8 - 5
- Scales obtuse......
§ Disk (its corollas and pales) yellow, (b)
b Leaves chiefly alternate and feather-veined...
Nos. 8 - 11
b Leaves chiefly opposite and 8-veined or tiipliveincd. (c)
c Scales erect, closely imbricated - Plants green ,rough...
. .Nos. 12, 13
- Plants whitish,downy....
C Scales loosely spreading. Heads large, 9 to 15-rayed. (d)
d Scales lance- linear, longer than disk. Leaves thin.....
d Scales lance-ovate, as long as the disk. Leaves thick.........
..Nos 18- 21
c Scalesloosely spearding. Heads small, 5to 8- rayed.........
...Nos. 22- 25
1 H. annuus L. Erect, stout; lvs. all cordate, 3-veined, only the lowest opposite ; ped. thick; hds. large, nodding; ach. glabrous. - This stately annual is from S. America. It grows in any soil, but its magnitude is in proportion, varj-ing from 2f to 10, or even 15f. The enormous size of the flowers with their broad rays of brilliant yellow are too well known to require description. A variety occurs with the flowers all radiate. Jl., Aug. - An edible oil has been expressed from the seeds.