4 G. purpureum L. St. erect, simple or branched from the base, tomentous; Ivs. lincar-spatulale or obovate-spatulate, downy-canescent beneath, green above ; hds. sessile, crowded, terminal and axillary; scales acuminate. - (1) Grows in sandy fields and pastures N. H. to Ind. and La. Stem 8 - 12' high, sending out shoots at the base. Heads with tawny, purplish scales and yellow corollas. June.
5 G. supinum Villars. Ocespitous, woolly; Ivs. linear; hds. few, oblong, in a spicate raceme or solitary; scales acute, brown; pistillate fls. in but one row.- White Mts., N. H. (Nuttall.) Sts. 2 to 4' high.
79. ANTENNA'RIA, Br. Everlasting. (Name in allusion to the bristles of the pappus, which resemble antennae.) Heads dioecious; involucre of imbricate, colored scales ; pistillate corollas filiform ; receptacle subconvex, alveolate ; pappus a single row of bristles. - Ц Tomentous. Lvs. alternate, entire. Hds. corymbous, with white or brownish, never yellow scales. (Gnaphalium L.)
1 A. margaritacea Br. St. erect, simple, corymbously branched above; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acute, 3-veined, sessile, woolly beneath, stem woolly; corymbs fasti-giate; scales elliptic, obtuse, opaque, white. - Ц Fields and pastures, U. S. and Brit. Am. St. 1 to 2f high, and with its numerous, scattered lvs. clothed with white and cotton-like down. Hds. numerous, hemispherical fadeless. Fls. yellow. Jl. - Named for its dry, imperishable, pearl-white scales. A. plantaginifolia Br. Mouse-ear. Everlasting. Stolons procumbent; st. simple; radical lvs. oval, obovate or spatulate, mucronate, 3-veined, silky-canes-cent, st. lvs. small, lanceolate; scales ovate, obtuse. - Ц Borders of woods, Ac, U. S. and Brit Am., flowering in early spring. Whole plant whitish with down. St. 5 to 8' high, often with stolons at base. Rt. lvs. much larger than those of the stem. St. lvs. few, bract-like. Hds. in a terminal, dense cluster, purplish white. Feb. - May. (A. dioica Br.)
80. FILA' GO, Tourn. Cotton Rose. Cudweed. (Apparently from the Latin filum, a thread ; on account of the cottony hairs.) Heads heterogamous; involucre of a few villous scales; marginal flowers ? ; receptacle columnar, naked at the apex, chaffy at base; achenia terete, central ones with a hairy pappus. - Downy-canescent herbs. Lvs. alternate, entire.
F Germanica L. St. dichotomous or proliferously branched above ; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acute, crowded, erect; hds. few-flowered, in dense, capitate clusters, terminal and lateral; scales cuspidate, passing insensibly into the pales of the receptacle, each with a pistillate flower in the axil. - (1) Fields and roadsides, Mass., N. Y. to Va. St. 6 to 10' high. Scales straw-oolor, with a green line outside. JL - Oct. § Eur.
81. XERAN'THEMUM, (Gr. ,dry, ; on account of its dry imperishable flowers.) Heads discoid; involucre hemispherical, with radiant, colored, opaque, scarious scales ; receptacle paleaceous ; pappus palec-setaceous. - (1) Native of S. Europe.
X. annuum Willd. Eternal Flower. St. erect, branched; Ivb. oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, alternate, entire; hds. large, terminal, solitary; scales of the involucre obtuse, scarious, inner ones of the ray spreading, lanceolate, obtuse. -A singular plant, half hardy, of easy culture. Stem 2 - 3f high. The radiant involucre scales are of a rich purple, but there are varieties with red, white, blue and yellow scales. The flowers retain their beauty for years.
82. HELICHRY'SUM. (Gr. golden sun) is another genus of fadeless flowers, of which several species are occasionally cultivated. The spreading scales are of various colors. II. bracteosum is the finest species, having yellow scales, heads on long stalks and lanceolate loaves.
83. ERECH'TITES, Raf. Fire-weed. (Gr. , to trouble; the species are troublesome weeds.) Flowers all tubular, those of the margin pistillate, of the disk perfect; involucre cylindrical, simple, slightly calyculate; receptacle naked; pappus of numerous, fine, capillary bristles. - (1) Lvs. simple, alternate. Fls. corymbous, whitish.
E. hieracifolius Raf. St. paniculate, virgate; lvs. oblong, amplexicaul, acute, unequally and deeply toothed with acute indentures; invol. smooth ; ach. hairy. -A rank weed, growing in fields (Can. and U. S.), particularly in such as have been newly cleared and burnt over. St. thick and fleshy, branching, 3f high, roughish. Lvs. of a light green, large, irregularly cut into many deep and acute teeth. Pis. terminal, crowded, destitute of rays, white. Invol. large and tumid at base. Aug., Sept. (Senicio hieracifolius L.)
84. CACA'LIA, L. Wild Caraway. Tassel Flower. (An ancient Gr. name of an uncertain plant.) Flowers all tubular, ; involucre cylindric, oblong, often calyculate with small scales at the base; receptacle not chaffy; pappus capillary, scabrous. - Mostly Ц. Smooth. Lvs. alternate. Hds. of fls. corymbcd, mostly cyanic.
§ Scales of the involucre united, about12. Flowers 60 to 80, scarlet....
§ Scales of the involucre distinct, - about 12. Flowers 20 to 30, white.............
-5 only. Flowers 5. - Leaves cordate or lobed..
Nos.2 - 4
- Leaves never cordate...
..Nos. 5 -7
1 C. suaviolens L. Glabrous; st. striate-angular; lvs. petiolate, hastate-sagittate, serrate, smooth, green on both sides; fls. corymbed, erect; invol. many-llowered. - Ц Western N. Y. to Conn. (Robbins), to Ga and I11. Stems 4 - 5f high, striate, leafy. Radical leaves on long stalks, pointed; cauline ones on winged stalks. Flowers whitish, in a terminal, compound corymb. Scales and peduncles smooth, with setaceous bracts beneath the involucre, and beneath the divisions of the peduncles. Aug.
2 C reniformis Muhl. St. sukate-angled; lvs. palmately veined, nearly smooth, green both sides, petiolate, lower ones reniform, upper flabelliform; corymb compound, fastigiate; hds. 5-flowered. - Woods, Ind., I11., Penn., S. to Car. St 3 to 6f high, nearly simple, glabrous. Lvs. 3 to 12' by 6 to 18', repand-dentate, lower petioles very long. Scales of involucre 5, obtuse, whitish. Jl.