4 S. tomentosus Mx. Clothed with soft, cotton-like, nearly persistent tomentum; root lvs. oblong or oblanceolate or ovate, obtuse, tapering to a long, slender petiole, crenate, the upper sessile; hds, fastigiate, rays 12 to 15; ach. pubescent. - Ц Va. to Fla. and La. St. 1 to 2f high, often nearly leafless above. Corymb simple, subumbellate. Root lvs. with their petioles 6 to 9' long, 1 to 3' wide. Rays spreading 16". Apr. - Jn. - The leaves are exceedingly variable. A variety (on Stone Mt., Ga.) is low, densely tomentous, with the lvs. all radical
5 S. anonymus. Plant clothed with a white, partly deciduous tomentum; root lvs. small, oblong, obtuse, crenate-serrate, some of them slightly lobed, tapering to a petiole, cauline lvs. long and narrow, remotely sinuate-pinnatifid, the segm. cut-den-late; hds. subumbellate, small, ach. pubescent. - Ц Montgomery, Ala. St 16 to 24' high. Root lvs. 1/2' wide and with their petioles 2 to 3' long. St. lvs. 6' long, the upper 1', almost bipinnatifid. Rays 8 to 10, spreading about 7'. May., Jn.
6 S. Canadensis L. Lvs. glabrous, bipinnate with linear, lobed, obtuse segm., the upper few pinnately divided; corymbs compound, fastigiate; rays 9 to 12.- Ц Canada (Kalm, in Willd. Spec, etc.) Upper districts of the S. States. Hds. rather small. Jn. - Possibly our S. anonymus is a variety of this. (S. millefolium T. & G.
7 S. lobatus Pers. Butter-weed. Glabrous or slightly floccous at base; lvs. all lyrate-pinnatifid (or the upper pinnatifid), the lobes crenate, distant, odd one roundish; corymbs somewhat compoundly umbeled; invol. slightly calyculate; rays 10 to 12; ach. minutely hispid. - (1) Low, wet grounds, N. Car. to Fla. and La., common. St. striate, 2 to 3f high. Lvs. 4 to 6' long, terminal lobe 1' diam. Rays spreading about 11". Mar. - Jl.
8 S. pseudo-elegans DC. Purple Jacob-ea. Lvs. equal, pinnatifid pilous-viscid, spreading; ped. somewhat scaly; invol. calyculate with leafy scales; scales mostly withered at the tips. - (1) Native of the Cape of Good Hope. A beautiful plant in cultivation. Fls. of the disk yellow, of the rays brilliant purple. A variety has double fls. with colors equally fine. Another variety has white fls. Jn. - Aug. † (S. elegans L.)
87. ARNICA, L. Involucre of equal, lanceolate scales, 1 or 2-rowed ; ray flowers ♀, disk ; receptacle flat, with scattered hairs; pappus single, rigid and serrulate. - Ц St. simple. Lvs. opposite. Fls. yellow. 1 A. mollis Hook. Pubescent; st. leafy; lvs. becoming nearly glabrous, thin, veiny, dentate, ovate-lanceolate and oblong, radical ones stalked, cauline sessile, hds. few; invol. hairy, with acuminate scales; ach. hairy. - Ravines, White Mta., N. H.. Essex Mts., KT. Y. Also Rocky Mta. St. 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 5' in length, the upper one broad at the base, the lower tapering to a winged petiole, often acute, but not acuminate. Jl. 2 A. nudicaulis Ell Hirsute; lvs. all sessile, subentire, oval or ovate, 3 to 5-veined, the veins converging to the apex, cauline small, 1 or 2 pairs; hds. few, large, terminal; rays about 12, 3-toothed at end; ach. glabrous. - Wet, sandy soils Va. to Fla. St. If high, scape-like. Lvs. mostly radical, resembling those of the plantains (Plantago), but smaller (2 to 3' long.) Rays spreading fully 2'. Apl., May.
Tribe 5. CYNAREae.
88. CYN'ARA, L. (Gr. kwv, a dog; the stiff, Lard spines of the invol. resemble a dog's teeth.) Heads discoid, homoganious; involucre dilated, imbricate, scales fleshy, emarginate, pointed ; receptacle setaceous ; pappus plumous ; achenia not beaked. - Natives of the Old World.
1 C. Scolymus L. Garden Artichoke. Lvs. subspinose, pinnate and undivided; invol. scales ovate. - Ц Gardens and cultivated grounds. A well known garden esculent. The parts used are the receptacle, the lower part of the involucre and the upper portion of the stalk. It is cultivated from suckers placed in rows, 3 feet apart. Aug., Sept ‡ § Eur.
2 C. cardunculus L. Cardoon. Lvs. spiny, all pinnatifid ; invol. scales ovate. -Ц Flowers purple. This plant is blanched or etiolated, by heaping earth around it, whence its petioles become crisp, tender, and are used like celery. ‡ §Eur.
89. TAGE'TES, L. Marigold. (For Tages, a Tuscan divinity, son of Genius and grandson of Jupiter.) Heads heterogamous; involucre simple, tubular, of 5 to 10 united scales; ray flowers 5, persistent; receptacle naked; pappus of 5 erect awns. - (1) Herbs of tropical America. Lvs. pinnately divided.
1 T. patula L. French Marigold. 51!. erect, with widely spreading branches; segm. of the leaves linear-lanceolate; ped. elongated, subcylindric, one-flowered; invol. smooth. - Plant about 2f high. Rays orange yellow; variegated with dark purple, †
2 T. erecta L. African Marigold. St. stout, erect; segm. of the lvs. lanceolate, ciliate-serrate ; ped. 1-flowered, ventricous and thickened at the summit ; invol. angular. - The hds. are twice larger than in T. patula, and on shorter peduncles. - These are well known and popular garden flowers with several varieties, †
90. CALENDULA, L. Pot Marigold. (Lat. calenda, the first day of the month; some species blossom monthly.) Heads radiate; in volucre of many equal leaves, in about 2 series; rays ♀ , fertile, disk
♂, sterile; receptacle naked; achenia of the disk membranaceous; pappus 0. - An oriental genus of annual herbs. Lvs. alternate.
C. officinalis L. Viscid-pubescent; st. branched; lvs. oblong, acute, mu-cronate, sessile, subdentate and scabrous-ciliate on the margin; hds. terminal, solitary; ach. carinate, muricate, incurved. - A common and handsome garden plant, from S. Eurone. It has double, lemon-colored, and other varieties. Flowers large and brilliant, generally orange-colored. Jn. - Sept. †
91. CENTALTREA, L. Knap-weed. Bachelor's-button. (The centaur, Chiron, it is said, cured with these, his foot wounded by Hercules.) Heads discoid ; involucre imbricate; ray flowers longer than the rest, sterile, often wanting; receptacle bristly; pappus of filiform, scabrous bristles in several series. - A genus of oriental herbs with alternate lvs.