3 C. horridulum Mx. Lvs. sessile, pinnatifid, acutely cut, spinous hds. invested with an external invol. of about 12 to 20 very spinous bracts; scales sharp-pointed, but unarmed. - (2) Found in meadows and hills, N. Eng. to Fla. St. 1 to 3f high, invested with wool. Lvs. somewhat clasping, woolly and hairy, armed with stiff spines. Hds. large (1' diam.), with yellowish white corollas, the scales webbed. Aug.
ß. Elliotth. Corollas purple, 2' long. Bracts about 12. - South (Elliott). Fla near Quincy.
4 C. Pitcheri, Torr. etc Gr.White-tomentous; lvs. rigid, pinnately parted, margins revolute, segm. long, linear, toothed or entire, spinous; hds. axillary; scales arachnoid, acuminate, tipped with a weak, spreading prickle. - Sandy lake shores, Mich, and Can. West. Cor. ochroleucous. Jn., Jl.
5 C. discolor Spreng. Lvs. sessile, pinnatifid, rough-haired, downy beneath, segm. 2-lobed, divaricate, spinous; invol. globous, the scales ovate, appressed, with spreading spines at the tip. - (2) A slender thistle 3 to 5f high, much branched and leafy at the summit, found in thickets, N. Eng. to I11. Hds. terminating the branches, 1'diam., with reddish purple corolla.-;. Jl. Aug.
6 C. altissimum Spreng. Tall, branched, villous-pubescent, leafy to the top; lvs. whitish beneath, spinous-ciliate, sessile, lanceolate oblong, often sinuate-dentate, lower undivided or pinnatifid petiolate, lobes or teeth spinescent. Hds. large, scales ovate-lanceolate, outer one with a spreading spine at apex. - Fields and barrens, Penn. and W. States, common. St. 3 to 8f high. Lvs. 6 to 8', by 1 to 6'. Hds. about 1' diam., with linear-lanceolate bracts at base. Fl. purple or purplish white. Aug.
7 C. Virginianum Michx. Slender, mostly simple, and naked above; lvs. sessile, lanceolate, margin revolute, entire or repand-dentate, teeth spinescent, or sometimes remotely sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid, upper surface glabrous, under surface tomentous-canescer.t; hds. small; invol. subglobous; scales tipped with a short, spreading prickle. - Woods, Ohio, and S. States. Plant about the size of the Canada thistle, clothed with an arachnoid pubescence, with few or many heads (sometimes but one) which are about 1/2' diam. Flowers purple. Apr. - Sept. (Carduua, L. Cnicus, Ph.)
8 C. repandum Mx. Arachnoid when young; lvs. crowded to the top, at length green both sides, clasping oblong-linear, undulate, spinous-ciliate; hds. 1 or 2; scales, outer ovate-lanceolate, inner subulate-acuminate. - Barrens, N. Car. to Ga.
9 C. pumilum Spreng. Hairy; lvs. few above, green on both sides, clasping, oblong-lanceolate, pinnatifid, the segm. irregularly lobed, ciliate, spinous; hds. few, very large, subtended by 1 to 5 bracts; invol. round-ovate, spinous. - (2) A common, low, turgid thistle, in roadsides, pastures, N. Eng. and Mid. States. St. 1 to 2f high, stout, striate, with 1 to 3 very large heads of fragrant, purple fls. Aug. (Cnicus odoratus Muhl.)
10 C. milticum Mx. Lvs. pinnatifid with divaricate segments; hds. on naked peduncles without bracts; invol. ovoid with unarmed, villous-arachnoid, glutinous scales. - (2) A fine looking thistle found in damp soils. Can. and U. S. St. branching, 3 to 7f high. Lvs. armed with spines at each angle. Hds. 1' diam., with deep purple corollas, the scales webbed and glutinous on the back. Aug., Sept.
11 C. glaber Nutt. Talk slender, nearly glabrous; lvs. lance-linear, rigid, with spinescent, divaricate segments, the lower slightly decurrent; hds. naked, on leafless stalks; scales setaceously mucronate, strongly keeled, almost glabrous, the inner attenuate-acuminate. - N. Jer. to Ga, St. very smooth, angled, 3 to 5f high. Lvs. minutely arachnoid beneath. Hds. 6" diam., truncate at base. Fls. purple. Jl. Sept.
12 C. arvense Scop. Canada Thistle, Cursed Thistle. Lvs. sessile, sinuate-pinnatifid, wavy, spinous; st. panicled; hds. numerous, small, invol. round or ovate, with minute spines, scales close-pressed, ovate-lanceolate. - Ц Common in fields, roadsides and waste places, N. Eng. to W. States, very troublesome to the farmer. Root creeping, long and tenacious of life. St. 3f high, with a branching panicle at top. Hds. small (4 to 5" diam.) purple, the involucre nearly thornless, and is the only part of the plant that can be safely handled. Jl. § Eur.
97. LAP'PA, Tourn. Burdock. (Lat. lappa, a burr, from Gr. , to lay hold of; a characteristic term.) Heads discoid, homogamous; involucre globous, the scales imbricated and hooked at the extremity ; receptacle bristly; pappus bristly, scabrous, caducous. - (2) Coarse, European herbs. Lvs. alternate, large.
L. major Gaert Lvs. cordate, unarmed, petioled. - Common in waste and cultivated grounds, fields. N. Eng., Mid. and TV. States. Each plant is a large, conical, ill-scented and coarse-looking mass of vegetation, surmounted by a branching, irregular panicle of ovoid heads with tubular corollas of an exceedingly delicate pink color. The leaves are very large, with wavy edges. It has a wonderful design for the dispersion of its seeds. The scales of the involucre all end in a minute, firm hook, which seizes hold of everything that passes by. Jl, Aug. § Eur. (Arctium Lappa L.)
ß. Leaves pinnatifid. - Penn. (Darlington).
Suborder II. LIGULIFLORae.
98. LAMPSA'NA, Tourn. Nipple-wort. (Gr. , to purge; uLapsana greatly relaxes the body," says Pliny.) Heads radiant, 8 to 12-flowered; involucre cylindrical, angular, scales 8, erect, in one row, with 2 or 3 minute bractlets at base; receptacle naked; achenia glabrous ; pappus 0. - Slender, oriental herbs, with small, yellow hds. in paniculate corymbs.
L. communis L. St. branched, panicled, leafy; lvs. ovate, petiolate, dentate; ped. cylindrical; invol. angular in fruit. - (1) Waysides, Can. East (Hook). Near Boston (Oakes). §