ß. ovatus. Cauline lvs. nearly all ovate, on slender petioles. y. CORDATUS. Lvs. cordate, on slender petioles. (Prenanthes cordata Willd.) 6. deltoIdea. Lvs. deltoid, acuminate, acutely denticulate. (P. deltoidea Ell.) e. dissectus. Lvs. mostly 3-parted or divided, segments entire or deeply cleft into 2 or 3 narrow lobes.
4 N. albus Hook. Lion's-foot. White Lettuce. St. smooth and somewhat glaucous, corymbous-panieulate above; radical lvs. angular-hastate, often more or less deeply lobed; stem lvs. roundish-ovate, dentate, petioled, the lobes or leaves obtuse; hds. pendulous; invol. of 8 scales, 9 - 12-flowered; pappus brown. -Moist woods and shades, N. Eng. to Iowa, and Can. to Car. Stem stout, 2 - 4f high, purplish, often deeply so in spots. Leaves very variable, all irregularly toothed. Scales purplish. Fls. a dingy white. Aug.
ß. serpen'taria. Radical lvs. palmate-sinuate, those of tho stem on long petioles, with the middle segment 3-parted; upper lvs. lanceolate. - Has the reputation of curing the rattlesnake's bite. (Prenanthes serpentaria Ph.)
5 N. Fraseri DC. St. smooth, corymbously paniculate above; lvs. subseabrous, hastate or deltoid, often pinnately lobed, on winged petioles, the upper ones lanceolate, subsessile ; invol. of about 8 scales, 8 - 12-flowered; pappus straw-colored.- Ц In dry, hard soils, Conn, and Mid. States (rare) to Fla., common. Stem 2 - 4f high. Leaves as variable as in other species, sometimes all being lanceolate, with only irregular indentures instead of lobes. Heads drooping, with purplish scales and cream-colored corollas. It is readily distinguished from N. albus by the more lively color of the pappus. Aug. (P. rubicaulis Ph.)
6 N. virgatus DC. Glabrous and glaucous, slender and simple; lower lvs. sinuate-pinnatifid, petiolate, middle ones toothed, sessile, upper entire partly clasping, gradually reduced to the minute, subulate bracts; fids, clustered, in a long compound, virgate, somewhat secund raceme; invol. with about S scales and 10 flowers; pappus-straw-colored. - A remarkably slender, wand-like species, in sandy soils, N. J. to Fla. St. 2 to 4f high, racemous half its length. Lvs. gradually simplified from the base upward, as in most of the species. Sept., Oct.
7 N. racemosus Hook. Glabrous, simple, slender; lvs. all undivided, lower oval-lanceolate, sharply denticulate, petiolate, upper ovate-lanceolate, subclasping, entire; hds. in nodding fascicles, arranged in a long, interruptedly spicate panicle; invol. of 8 to 9 scales, with 9 to 12 fls.; pappus straw-color. - N. J., N. W. States and Can. St. 2 to 4f high. Fls. pale red-purple.
ß. Lvs. deeply and irregularly pinnalifid,
8 N. asper Torr. & Gr. St. strict, simple, scabrous; lvs. simple, scabrous-pubescent, dentate, lower ones oblong-oval, on margined petioles, upper lance-oblong and lance-linear, subentire, sessile; hds. erect, in small fascicles, in a slender, elongated, compound raceme; invol. strongly hirsute, of 7 to 10 scales and with 11 to 14 fls.; pappus straw-color. - Dry prairies and barrens, W. States (Dr. Skinner), common. St 2 to 4f high, nearly smooth. Lvs. 3 to 6' long, pubescent or glabrous. Eac. 1 to 2f long. Fls. ochroleucous. Sept. (N. Illinoensia DC.)
9 N. crepidineus DC. Nearly glabrous; st. tall, stout, corymbously paniculate; lvs. large, irregularly toothed, petioles winged, lower ones oblong-ovate, somewhat hastate or deltoid, upper oblong-lanceolate; hds. nodding, in small, pedunculate and panicled clusters; invol. hairy, of 11 to 14 scales, with 25 to 35 fls.; pappus tawny. - Fields and thickets, W. States. One of the largest species. St. 5 to 8f high. Lvs. 4 to 12' by 2 1/2 to 7', obtuse or acute. Hds. large but not numerous, with brown scales and yellowish- fls. Aug. - Oct.
108. TROX'IMON, Nutt. (Gr. , eatable; applied to this genus with little propriety.) Heads many-flowered; involucre cam-panulate, scales loosely imbricate, lance-ovate, membranous, in 2 to 3 rows ; achenia oblong-linear, compressed, glabrous, not rostrate ; pappus setaceous, copious, white. - Ц Lvs. all radical. Scape bearing a single, large, showy hd. with yellow fls.
T. cuspidatum Ph. Rt. fusiform; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acuminate, margins tomentous, often undulate; scales acuminate-cuspidate, erect, smooth, in 2 series, the outer nearly equal to the inner. Prairies, Wise. (Lapham), I11. (Mead.), W. to the Rocky Mts. (Nuttall). Apr. - Jn. (T. marginatum Nutt.)
109. TARAX'ACUM, Desf. Dandelion. (Gr. , cathartic ; from its medicinal properties.) Involucre double, the outer of small scales much shorter than the inner, appressed row; receptacle naked ; achenia produced into a long beak crowned with the copious, white, capillary pappus. - Acaulescent herbs, with runcinate lvs.
T. Dens-leonis Less. Outer scales of the involucre reflexed; lvs. runcinate, smooth, dentate. - Ц In all open situation, blossoming at all seasons except winter. Lvs. all radical, the teeth or lobes bent backwards. After the flower is closed and decayed, the hollow scape rises higher and bears a head of fruit full fledged, the airy, globular form of which is very conspicuous in the tall grass. The leaves in Spring furnish an excellent pot herb. Apr. - Nov. § Eur. (Leontodoa Taraxacum L.) (Fig. 324.)
HO. PYRRHOPAP'PUS, DC.' False Dandelion. (Gr. , flamecolored ; , pappus.) Involucre double, the outer row numerous, loose and spreading; receptacle naked; achenia 5-grooved, at length long-beaked, bearing a copious, soft capillary, reddish pappus. - (1) and Ц Hds. solitary on long peduncles, large, with numerous deep yellow fls. (Borkhausia, Nutt.)
P. Carolinianus DC. St. simple or branched, scape-like; lvs. mostly radical, lanceolate, acute, sinuate-toothed, lobed, or pinnatifld, some or all of them often entire. - Fields and pastures, very common. Sts. with 1 to 3 small lvs., 6 to 20' high. Outer scales subulate-filiform, inner linear. Ach. oblong, beak filiform, longer (7') than the showy pappus. Hds. in flower 18" to 2' broad, turning to the morning sun. Mar. - Jl.