111. LYGODES'MIA, Don. (Gr. , a wand, , a bond; alluding to its slender habit.) Involucre, flowers, etc, as in Nabalus, except that the pappus is very copious, soft, smooth, whitish, and the; corollas rose-colored. - In habit remarkably different from Nabalus, with linear-subulate lvs. and erect hds. on long, naked peduncles. (Prenan-thes, Nutt.)
L. aphylla DC. St. scape-like, erect, slender, striate, once or twice forked above; lvs. nearly all radical, short, linear-filiform. - Pine woods, Ga., Fla. (Mettauer.) St. 2f high. Hds. few, cylindrical, the invol. 10" long; cor. showy, exserted about the same length. Root lvs. 6 to 10' long. May.
112. LACTU'CA, Tourn. Lettuce. (Lat. lac, milk; from the milky, abundant juice.) Involucre few-flowered, scales imbricated in 2 or more unequal rows ; achenia obcompressed (flattened same way as the scales), glabrous, abruptly narrowed to a long, filiform beak; pappus copious, soft, capillary, white, fugacious. - Herbs with leafy stems and paniculate hds. of various colors. (Fig. 333.)
1 L. graminifolia Mx. St. terete, simple, strict; lvs. long, linear, entire, or the lower sparingly sinuate-lobed, the lobes turned backwards; panicle loose, naked; scales 6 to 9; fls. 20 or more; ach. oval, as long as their beaks (2"). - Dry soils, S. Car., Ga. to La. St. 2 to 4f high, not very slender, hollow. Lvs. partly clasping, 3 to 6 to 8' long, 3 to 4" wide. Cor. purple, varying to white, rarely yellow. Apr. - Sept.
2 L. elongata L. Trumpet Milkweed. Lvs. smooth and pale beneath, am-plexicaul, runcinate-pinnatifid, upper lanceolate, entire, sessile; hds. racemous-paniculate; scales few; fls. 12 or more. - A common rank plant, growing in hedges, thickets, where the soil is rich and damp. St. hollow, stout, 3 to 6f high, often purple, bearing a leafless, spreading panicle of numerous hds. of fls. Lvs. very variable, the lower 6 to 12' long, commonly deeply runcinate. Corollas yellow, varying to purplish. Achenia oblong, compressed, about the length of the beak. Jl., Aug.
ß. integrifolia. Lvs. nearly all undivided, lanceolate, sessile, the lowest often sagittate at base. (L. integrifolia Bw. L. sagittifolia E1l) y. sanguinea. Leaves runcinate, amplexicaul, mostly pubescent, glaucous beneath; fls. purple. St. 2 to 3f high, often purple. (L. sanguinarea Bw.)
3 L. sativa L. Garden Lettuce. St. corymbous; lvs. suborbicular, the cauline ones cordate. - (1) Cultivated for salad. Plant with very smooth, yellowish green foliage, which in one variety (capitata) is so abundant as to form heads like the cabbage. Fls. numerous, small, with yellowish corollas. The milky juice contains opium, hence the unpleasant narcotic effects when eaten too freely. ‡
113. MULGEDIUM, Cass. Wild Lettuce. (Lat. mulgeo, to milk ; in allusion to the milky juice.) Involucre many-flowered, somewhat double, the outer series of scales short and imbricated ; receptacle naked, faveolate; pappus copious, soft, capillary, crowning the short beaked achenia, which are compressed contrary to the scales. - Lvs. mostly spinulous. hds, with many yellow or cyanic fls. (Sonchus, Willd. Agathyrsus, Don.) (Fig. 332.)
§ Corollas blue. Pappus bright white..........
§ Corollas cream-colored ,turning purplish. Pappus twany........
1 M. acuminatum DC. Lvs. ovate, acuminate, petiolate, dentate, undivided, or the radical slightly runcinate; hds. loosely paniculate, on somewhat bracteolate peduncles; ach. slightly beaked. - In hedges and thickets, N. Y. to Ind. and S. States. A smooth plant. 3 to 6f high, with the stem often purplish. Lvs. 3 to (J' long, the lower ones often deltoid-hastate or truncae at base, sinuate-denticulate, narrowed at base into a winged petiole. Hds. small Scales dark purple, with blue corollas. Pappus white on the short-beaked, ovate-acuminate achenia. Aug., Sept.
2 M. Floridanum DC. Lvs. runcinatdy pinnate-parted; segm. few, serrate-dentate, upper ones triangular, acute or acuminate; panicle loose, erect, compound ; ach. short-beaked. - W. and S. States, hedges and waste grounds. Plant with a terminal panicle of blue flowers. St. 3 to 6f high. Lvs. 4 to 8' long, variable in form. Hds. small. Rays expanding 9". Jl. - Sept.
3 M. leucophaeum DC. Lvs. numerous, lyrate-runcinate, coarsely deutate; hds. paniculate, on squamous-bracteate peduncles; pappus tawny; cor. yellowish.- Moist thickets, N. and W. States. A tall, leafy plant, nearly smooth. St. 4 to 10f high. Lvs. 5 to 12' long, irregularly divided, the segm. repand-toothed, the radical on long stalks, the upper ones sessile, often undivided. Hds. small, in a long, slender panicle. Aug., Sept.
114. SON THUS, L. Sow-Thistle. (The ancient name.) Involucre many-flowered imbricate, of numerous unequal scales, at length tumid at base; receptacle naked; pappus of simple, copious, white-silky hairs, in many series: achenia compressed, not rostrate.-Lvs. mostly spinulous. Hds. with many yellow fls.
§ Flowers bright yellow, in snowy heads. Achenia angular. Perennial......
§ Flowers pale yellow, in large heads. Achenia flat. Annual......................
No. 2, 3
1 S. arvensis L. Root creeping; stem glabrous, erect; lvs. runcinate-pin-natifid, spinulous-dentate, cordate, clasping at base, with short and obtuse auricles; panicles umbellate-corymbous; ped. and invol. hispid; ach. somewhat 4-angled, ribs transversely rugulous.-Waste grounds, naturalized, E. Mass. and S. N. York, rare. St. angular, about 2f high. Hds large, with deep yellow fls. § Eur.
2 S. asper Vill. Lvs. cordate-amplexicaul, oblong-lanceolate, undulate, spinulous-denlate; ped. subumbellate; ach. oval-obovate, 3-ribbed on each side.-Found in similar situations with the next, but less common, U. S. St. 1 to 2f high, smooth except at the summit of the branches where it is often hispid-glandular. Lvs. with numerous, short, spiny teeth, wavy or slightly runcinate, the upper ones clasping so as to appear perfoliate. Scales with few scattered hairs. Aug., Sept. (S. spinulosus Bw. S. Carolinianus Walt.)