I TUBULIFLORae. - Corolla of the perfect fls. tubular, 5-lobed. (A)

Tribe 1, Vernoniace/E. Branches of the stylo long, slender, terete, and hispid all over. Heads discoid ; flowers all alike perfect...............................Nos. 1 - 3

Tribe 2, Etpatoriaceae. Branches of the style clavate, obtuse, flattened, minutely pubescent. Hds, discoid. Fls. all alike, perfect.......................Nos. 4 - 15

Tribe 3, Asteroideae. Branches- of the style flat, linear, downy above and opposite the distinct, stigmatic lines, appendaged at top. Heads discoid or radiate...................................................................Nos. 16 - 35

Tribe 4, Senecionidae. Branches of the style linear, fringed at the top, truncate or extended into a conical, hispid appendage...................................Nos. 36 - 87

Tribe 5, Cyxareae. Style thickened or node-like at top ; branches not appendaged, the stigmatic lines not prominent, reaching the apex....................Nos. 88 - 97

II. LIGULIFLORae. - Corollas all ligulate (radiant), the flowers all perfect. (B)

Tribe 6, Cichoraoeae. Branches of the style long, obtuse, pubescent all over ; stigmatic lines commencing below their middle. Juice milky.................Nos. 98 - 114

III. LABIATIFLORae. - Corolla of the perfect flowers bilabiate. (C)

Tribe 7, Mulisiaceae. Stylo nearly as in Cynareae, the branches obtuse, very convex outside, minutely downy at the top...................................... No. 115

ARTIFICIAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA. A. Suborder, TUBULIFLORae.

$ Heads discoid, that is, without rays. (1)

1 Receptacle naked, i. e., with no pales or t)ristles among the flowers. (2) 2 Pappus a circle of 5 - 20 chaffy scales, (a) 2 Pappus none, or a short, toothed margin, (b) 2 Pappus composed of many capillary bristles. (3) 3 Leaves opposite, (Heads homogamous.) (d) 3 Leaves alternate. (4)

4 Heads homogamous, - fls. all perfect, (c) 4 Heads heterogamous, fls. not all perfect. (5) 5 Scales herbaceous, often deciduous, (e) 5 Scales scarious, persistent, often colored, (f) 1 Receptacle chaffy bearing pales among the flowers. (6) 6 Leaves alternate, (g)

6 Leaves opposite, (h.)

1 Receptacle bearing bristles, or deeply alveolate (honey-combed). (7)

7 Pappus none, or consisting of scales, (i) 7 Pappus composed of many bristles, (j) $ Heads radiate, i. e., the outer flowers ligulato. (8)

8 Receptacle naked (not chaffy), or (in No. 67) deeply honeycomb-celled. (9) 9 Pappus of 5-12 scales which are 1-awned or (in No. 61) cleft-bristly, (k) 9 Pappus none, or of a few short awns. (1) 9 Pappus of many capillary bristles. (10) 10 Kays cyanic, in a single row. (m) 10 Pays cyanic, in several rows, (n) 10 Kays yellow, in about one row. (11)

11 Pappus double, or of very unequal bristles, (o) 11 Pappus simple, the bristles all similar. (12)

12 Involucre scales imbricated, the outer shorter, (p) 12 Involucre scales equal, not imbricated, (r) 8 Receptacle chaffy, with pales among the flowers. (13)

13 Disk and ray flowers both fertile, the latter pistillate. (14) 14 Rays yellow (s) 14 Kay's cyanic, (t) 13 Disk flowers sterile, ray flowers fertile, (u) 13 Disk flowers fertile, ray flowers sterile. (15)

15 Achenia obcompressed, often beaked, (v)

15 Achenia compressed laterally, or not at all. (x)

a Corolla lobes one-side. Head large,many-flowered.....

...STOKESIA

2

a Corolla lobes one-side. Heads 4 - 5 flowered , aggregated..........

. .Elephantopus

3

a Corolla lobes equal - Leaves opposite. Pappus awned......

....AGERATUSM.

. 4

- Leaves whorled. Pappus obtuse...........

..SCLEROLEPIS.

.5

- Leaves alternate. - Pappus scales 8 - 10......

....POLYPTERIS

63

- Pappus scales 12 - 20..........

. H YMENOPAPPUS.

64

b Leaves opposite. Flowers dicecious,obscure..............

....AMBROSIA

45

b Leaves alternate. - Flowers yellow. Disk conical!.............

..MATRICARIA

73

- Flowers yellow. Disk convex.........

...TANACETUM

75

- Flowers whitish. - Erect, leafless above........

.. Adenocaulon.

15

- Erect, leafy..............

....ARTEMISIA.

76

- Low and depressed..............

....SOLIVA

77

c Scales of the involucre in one row. Flowers cyanic..............

....CACALIA.

84

c Scales of the involucre in one row. Flowers yellow..........

...SENECIO.

86

c Scales imbricated - Flowers yellow......

..BIGELOVIA

27

- Flowers whitish. EUPATORIUM 10, and......

..KUHNIA.

3

- Flowers purple. - Pappus simple..........

....LIATRIS

7

- Pappus double................

......Vernonia.

1

d Achenia 10 - striate. Flowers purple.............

....BRICKELLIA.

9

d Achenia 5 - angled. - Receptacle conical. Flowers blue......

..CONOCLINIUM

12

- Receptacle flat. - Scales 4 or 5 ....

..MIKANIA

11

- Scales 8 - 20........

...EUPATORIUM.

10

e Shrubs. Flower dicecious, the ♀ and ♂ in differnt heads...

..BACCHARIS.

35

e Herbs. - Stem winged. Heads spicate......

..PTEROCAULON.

36

- Stem wingless. - Heads corymbous, purplish....

...PLUCHEA.

34

- Heads paniculate. - Pappus reddish.......

....CONYZA.

32

- Pappus white........

...ERECHTITES.

83

f Receptacle chaffy except in the center......

...FILAGO

80

f Receptacle naked. - Heads dicecious........

...ANTENNARIA.

79

- Heads heterogamous. - Involucre erect.....

.....GNAPHALIUM.

78

- Involucre radiate.......

...HELICHRYSUM.

82

g Scales dry, fadeless. Pappus of scale- like awns...........

...XERANTHEMUM.

81

g Scales herbaceous. - Flowers heterocephalous. Fruit a burr.......

..XANTHIUM

46

- Fls.all perfect. - Pappus of 5 or 6 scales...

...MARSHALLIA.

68

- Papp. of many bristles.......

..CARPHEPHORUS.

6

h Flowers yellow. Pappus 2 inversely hispid awns........

...BIDENS.

58

h Flowers yellow. Pappus 2 erectly hispid awns.........

....COREOPSIS.

57

h Flowers whitish, - heterocephalous. Anthers yellowish......

....AMBROSIA.

45.

- moncecious. Anthers yellow.....

..IVA

44

- all perfect. Anthers black....

..MELANTHERA

47

i Outer scales of the invol. leafy. Pappus none....

...CARTHAMUS

93

i Outer scales pectinate or ciliate- fringed..........

...CENTAUREA

91

i Outer and inner scales obtuse, entire.........

....AMBERBOA.

92

j Pappus plumous. Achenia obovate..........

..CYNARA

88

j Pappus plumous. Achenia oblong.........

..CIRSIUM.

96

j Pappus scabrous, - triple, each row by 10s......

..CNICUS

94

- simple. - Scales spinescent...............

.....ONOPORDON.

95

- Scales hooked.............

...LAPPA

97

k Leaves opposite. Papp. scales deeply cleft into bristles......

...DYSODIA

61

k Leaves alternate. - Rays fertile...........

...HELENIUM.

65

- Rays sterile. - Receptacle naked or fimbriate....

...GAILLARDIA.

62

- Receptecle areolate,....

...LEPRTOPODA

66

- Receptacle deeply celled....

...BALDWINI

67

l Leaves opposite. Involucre double, outer 8 united......

....DAHLIA.

23

l Leaves opposite. Involucre single; scales united.........

....TAGETES.

89

l Leaves alternate. - Pappus of a few short awns or bristles....

..BOLTONIA

24

- Papus a membranous margin......

....MATRICARIA.

73

- Pappus 0. - Rays fertile, disk sterile.....

...CALENDUKLA.

90

- Fls. all fert. - Invol. scales equal.....

....BELLIS

22

- Invol. broad, flat.......

. .Leucanthemum.

72

Invol. hemispherical

. Chrysanthemum.

74

m Rays neutral sterile, 3 - 12; Pappus simple.....

....GALATELLA.

16

m Rays pistillate, fertile, - about 5 Achenia very silky........

.....SERICOCARPUS.

17

- 8 - 12. Pappus double.........

..DIPLOPAPPUS

19

- 5 - 75. Pappus simple.........

.....ASTER.

18

- 40 - 200, white. Scales equal.........

...ERIGERON.

29

n Flowers dicecious, purplish. Leaves all radical.........

...NARDOSNMIA.

14

n Fls. all fertile. - Outer pappus 0 or very short, poinet scales...

..ERIGERON.

20

- Outer pappus a crown of short, pointed scales.....

...CALLISTEPHUS.

21

o Flowers of the disk mostly sterile. Rays 30 - 40.........

...PRIONOPSIS

29

o Fls. all fertile. - Pappus double in the disk , none in the ray....

...HERTEROTHECA

30

- Pappus double in both disk and ray........`

...CHRYSPOPSIS.

31

p Heads large , about 20 - rayed. Pappus in one row......

....INULA

33

p Heads very small, 1 - 15-rayed. - Pappus 1 row, shorter than achenia

BRACHYCHaeTA.

25

- Pappus 1 row, tawny, longer than achenia

....ISOPAPPU8.

28

- Pappus irregularly 2-rowed, white

..SOLIDAGO

26

r Head solitary, on a scape with alternate bracts......

...TUSSILAGO

13

r Heads corymbed, etc. - Leaves alternate.........

.........Senecio.

86

- Leaves opposite........

.....ARNICA.

87

s Shrubby. Pappus 4- toothed, obscure.........

...BORRICHIA.

37

s Herbaceous. - Scales (the 4 outer) united into a cup.........

Tetragonotheca.

50

- Scales distinct. - Achenia 4 - angled. Pappus 0...

..HELIOPSIS

49

- Achenia flattened. Pappus 0...

....ACMELLA.

59

- Ach. flat, with a 2-awned pappus.....

..VERBESINA.

60

t Leaves alternate.Pappus none. Achenia terete....................................

...ANTHEMIS.

69

t Leaves alternate. Pappus none. Achenia obcompressed.....................

...ACHILLEA.

71

t Leaves opposite. - Pappus none........................................................

.......ECLIPTA.

33

- Pappus of fringed scales Hds. gm. Rays 5, sm. white.

§Eur. GalinsogA

- Papp. of the disk a single awn of the ray 0..........

......ZINNIA.

4S

u Leaves opposite. Rays yellow. pappus none...................................................

..POLYMNIA.

39

u Leaves opposite. Rays yellow. Papp. 2 or 3-toohed. .Silphium 41.

CHRYSOGONUM.

40

u Leaves opposite. - Rays whitish, very short, 5 only..............................

Parthenium.

43

- Rays yellow .- Achenia winged.........................................

..SILPHIUM.

41

- Achenia wingless.........................

..Berlandiera.

42

V Achenia with erectly hispid awns, or awnless; never rostrate-----

..COREOPSIS.

57

V Achenia with retrorsely hispid awns, often attenuated above.....

........BIDENS.

58

X Rays white, spreading . pappus none............................................

...MARUTA.

70

X Rays purple, pendant. pales sharp, elongated..............................

.ECHINACEA.

51

X Rays yellow.- Pappus none. Achenia quadrangular......................

RUDBECKIA.

52

- Pappus none. Achenia compressed.......................

...LEPACHIS.

53

- Pappus of 2 deciduous awns. Ach. wingless.........

HELIANTHUS.

54

- Pappus of 2 presistent teeth. Ach. winged.............

.Helianthella.

55

- Papp. of 2 persistent awns. Ach. broad-winged.......

ACTINOMERIS.

56

B. Suborder, LIGULIFLORae.

§§ Pappus none, or consisting of little scales, (a)

§§ Pappus double (of scales and bristles), or simple and plumous. (b)

§§ Pappus composed of capillary bristles, not plumous. (*)

* Achenia terete or angular, not flattened, (c)

* Achenia evidently flattened, (d)

a Flowers yellow. Pappus none. Heads paniculate........................................

... LAMPSANA.

. 98

a Flowers yellow. Pappus none. Heads solitary or umbellate.......

....APOGON.

99

a Flowers blue. -Pappus of many little scales . recept. naked.....................

...CICHORIUM.

100

- Pappus of 5 scales. receptacle chaffy........................

...CHATANCHE.

106

b Flowers purple. Feathery pappus on a long filiform beak......

..TRAGOPOGON.

104

b Flowers yellow. Feathery pappus on a short beak or sessile...

..LEONTODON.

103

b Flowers yellow. - Pappus of many bristles with the scales..

..CYNTHIA.

102

- PAppus of 5 bristles and 5 scales....

...KRIGIA.

101

c flowers whitish or purplish, mostly nodding. stem leafy.......................

..NABALUS.

107

c flowers rose -purple,erect. (stem almost leafless)...................................

..LYGODESMIA.

111

c flowers yellow -Achenia long beaked. Pappus white............................

...TARAXACUM.

109

-Achenia long beaked. Pappus reddish...........................

. .Pyrropappus.

110

- Achenia not beaked. - Pappus dull white or tawny..........

..HIERACIUM.

105

- Pappus bright white.......................

....TROXIMON.

103

d Achenia contracted into a slender beak . Fls. mostly yellow..................

....LACTUCA.

112

d Achenia scarely beaked .- flowers mostly blue .................................

.....MULGEDIUM.

118

- flowers. papp. silky.......................................

.....SONCHUS.

114

C. Suborder, LABIATIFLORae.

§ § § Head radiate, solitary, nodding in bud. Pappus capillary ................

.....CHAPTALIA.

115

Suborder I. TUBULIFLORae.

Tribe 1. VERNONIACEae.

1. VERN0 NIA, Schrcb. Iron Weed. (Named for William Vernon, an English botanist who traveled in America in search of plants.) Flowers all tubular, perfect; involucre of ovate, imbricated scales, the inner longest; receptacle naked ; pappus double, the exterior chaffy, the interior capillary. Ц Herbs or shrubs. Lvs. alternate. Fls. purple (in our species.)

§ Scales of the involucre all obtuse and closely appressed..................................................

............No. 1

§ Scales of the invol. (usually all)-with slender, flexuous points.....................................

...Nos. 2,3

-with acute or mucronate points.......

... Nos. 4, 5, 6

1 V. fasciculata Mx. St. tall, striate or grooved, tomentous; lvs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering to each end, serrulate, lower ones petiolate; hds. numerous, in a somewhat fastigiate cyme, invol. ovoid-campanulate; scales appressed, mucro-nate or obtuse. - Woods and prairies, W. States, very common. A coarse, purplish-green weed 3 to 10f high. Lvs. 4 to 8' by 1 to 2', smooth above. Cymes compact or loose. Heads large or small. Cor. showy, dark purple, twice longer than the involucre. Jl. - Aug. Variable.

2 V. Noveboracensis Willd. Lvs. numerous, lanceolate, serrulate, rough, cyme fastigiate; scales of invol, filiform at the ends. - A tall, showy plant with numerous large, dark purple flowers, found in meadows and other moist situations, U. S. St branching at top, reddish, 3 to 6f high. Lvs. crowded, paler beneath, radical ones often lobed. Cymes terminal, flat-topped, compound. Scales and corolla deep purple, the former ending in long, threadlike appendages, or in one variety (V. praealta Less.) partly cuspidate. In another variety (V. tomentosa Ell.) the plant becomes tomentous in the corymbs and under surface of the leaves. Sept.

3 V. scaberrima Nutt. St. simple, corymbed above; lvs. crowded below, sessile, lanceolate and lance-linear, scabrous above, margins revolute, subentire; hds. 20 to 30-flowered: scales lanceolate, ciliate, protracted into long, flexuous points; pappus whitish, exserted but shorter than the appendaged scales. - In pine barrens. Height 2 to 3f. Invol usually green ; cor. purple. Jn. - Aug.

4 V. angustifolia Mx. Slender, many-leaved; lvs. linear or lance-linear, the lowest serrulate, upper entire with revolute margins; cymes corymbous, with very slender peduncles; hds. 10 to 15 flowered; scales acute or mucronate, the lower spreading and more or less filiform-pointed; pappus purplish, twice longer than the invol. - N. Car. to Fla. and La, in the pine barrens. About 2f high. Sept., Oct.