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Class-Book Of Botany USA&Canada | by Alphonso Wood



Being outlines of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants, with a flora of the United States and Canada

TitleClass-Book Of Botany USA&Canada
AuthorAlphonso Wood
PublisherA. S. Barnes & Co.
Year1874
Copyright1874, A. S. Barnes & Co.
AmazonClass-Book Of Botany

"He spake of trees, from the Cedar of Lebanon even onto the Hyssop that Springeth Oct Of The Wall." - 1 King; Lv. 33.

"Consider the lilies of the field....even Solomon, in all rug Glory, was not Areaved Like One Of These." - Matthew, Vl. 28, 29.

-Preface To The Revised Edition
In the present edition the Flora has been extensively revised, and numerous changes have been made, in accordance with recent discoveries and the general progress of the science of Phytology. These ch...
-Botanical Apparatus
The publishers (Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co.) have recently provided and have on sale, suitable apparatus for the use of the student in Botany, made according to directions in this work (page 15). It co...
-Preface
The Class-Book of Botany was first offered to the student in 1845. It was originally prepared with immediate reference to the wants of the author's own pupils, with scarcely a hope of approval from th...
-Chapter I. Leading Principles Of Science: - Mental And Moral Discipline Its Aim And End
1. Plants as related to Man. The vegetable kingdom maintains towards man several important relations. Besides its obvious utility as the source of his food, shelter, clothing and medicine, it furnishe...
-Leading Principles Of Science: - Mental And Moral Discipline Its Aim And End. Continued
15. Illustration. Thus in magnitude, although the tiny moss is far removed from the gigantic oak, yet a series connects them representing every imaginable intermediate grade in size. So in number, fro...
-Chapter II. The Departments Of The Study
30. Three great departments in nature are universally recognized, commonly called the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms. The first constitutes the Inorganic, the other two the Organic World. ...
-Chapter III. Appabatus - Methods Of Study
52. The proper season for the commencement of the study of Botany in schools is in late winter, at the opening of the first session or term after New-Years. The class will thus be prepared before hand...
-Questions
Introduction Chapter I What is the subject treated of in this chapter? What is the end and aim of all science? NOTE. - The class may use this chapter as a Lesson in Reading, or for Recita...
-Questions. Part 2
136. What curious style of root has the screw-pine? 137. Describe the adventitious roots of the banyan. 138. Describe the curious habit of the mangrove tree. 139. How may the growth of advent...
-Questions. Part 3
235. In what plants is this (the 5/13) cycle realized? 236. What cycle is next in order? What its numerical sign? 237. You may read the remarks on the higher cycles. Morphology Of The Leaf ...
-Questions. Part 4
305. What is the nature of the brown scales of buds? 306. What is the nature of the cotyledons? Proof? What is the cause of their deformity? 307. Can you tell what phyllodia are? Examples? ...
-Questions. Part 5
401. Carefully define the corolla. What do we call its leaves? 402. What is the use of the word perianth? 403. The essential organs - what two kinds? 404. Define the stamens. What of their ...
-Questions. Part 6
What is the collective name of the stamens? (Fig. 33G.) In fig. 336, which is the androecium? Which the gynoecium? In fig. 338, which is filament? Anther? Pollen? Connectile? 493. Describe th...
-Questions. Part 7
588. What is the eye of the seed properly called? 589. When is the seed said to be albuminous? When exalbuminous? 590. Describe the albumen. Its quantity compared with the embryo. What its ...
-Questions. Part 8
699. What has perished in a hollow tree? 700. Name the three layers of the bark. 701. The liber - of what tissues? Whence is its toughness? 702. What is the green bark? What its structure? ...
-Questions. Part 9
806. Where does the flow called rotation occur? Describe it 808. What is the process called transpiration? It occurs where and when? 809. What other process depends upon it? Does it convey away ...
-Chapter I. Primary Divisions Of The Vegetable Kingdom
have long been recognized by botanists, viz., the Phaenogamia or Flowering Plants; the Cryptogamia, or Flowerless Plants. Besides the obvious distinction made by the presence and absence of the flower...
-Chapter II. Term Of Plant Life
83. Plant Life defined. The vital principle in the plant or its life is known only by its effects. In the animal these effects are, in kind, twofold, indicating two kinds of life, the organic and the ...
-Chapter III. The Phaenogamia - How Developed
103. The embryo. The plant in its earliest stage of life is an embryo, contained in a seed. It then consists essentially of two parts, the radicle and the plumule. We may discern both in many seeds, a...
-Chapter IV. The Root Or Descending Axis
114. Definition. The root is the basis of the plant and the principal organ of nutrition. It originates with the radicle of the seed; the tendency of its growth is downward, and it is generally immers...
-Tubercular
133. Deposits of starch, or farinaceous matter, in all these cases, constitute the thickening substance of the root, stored up for the future use of the plant. 134. Adventitious roots are such as o...
-Chapter V. The Stem, Or Ascending Axis
146. Definition. That part of the plant which originates with the plumule, tends upward in its growth and expands itself to the influence of the air and the light, is called the stem or ascending axis...
-The Stem, Or Ascending Axis. Part 2
161. The node or joint of the stem marks a definite point of a peculiar organization where the leaf with its axillary bud arises. The nodes occur at regular intervals, and the spaces between them are ...
-The Stem, Or Ascending Axis. Part 3
178. The vine is cither herbaceous or woody. It is a stem too slender and weak to stand erect, but trails along the ground or any convenient support. Sometimes, by means of special organs for this pur...
-Chapter VI. The Leaf-Bud
195. It is but a step from the study of the bulb to that of the leaf-bud. Buds are of two kinds in respect to their contents; the leaf-bud containing the rudiments of a leafy stem or branch, the ...
-Chapter VII. The Leaf
217. Its importance. The leaf constitutes the verdure of plants, and is by far the most conspicuous and beautiful object in the scenery of nature. It is also of the highest importance in the ...
-Phyllotaxy, Or Leaf-Arrangement
220. As the position of the leaf upon the stem marks the position on the exillary bud, it follows that the order of the leaf-arrangement will be the order of the branches also. The careful ...
-Morphology Of The Leaf
239. General character. The leaf may be regarded as an expansion of the substance of the bark, extended into a broad thin plate by means of a woody frame work or skeleton, issuing from the inner part ...
-Of The Petiole
243. The form of the distinct petiole is rarely cylindrical, but more generally flattened or channeled on the upper side. When it is flattened in a vertical direction, it is said to be compressed, as ...
-Of The Stipules
247. Stipules are certain leaf-like expansions, always in pairs, situated one on each side of the petiole near the base. They do not occur in every plant, but are pretty uniformly present in each ...
-Of The Veins
253. Leaves, simple and compound. A leaf is simple when its blade consists of a single piece, however cut, cleft or divided; and compound when it consists of several distinct blades, supported by as ...
-Form Or Figure
Forms of leaves. 110, Rhododendron maximum. 111, Alnus glutinosa (cult.). 112, Polygonum sagittatum. 113. Pawpaw. 114, Impatiens fulva. 115, Celtis Americana. 116, Circaea Lutetiana. 117, Catmin...
-Margin
The following terms apply to the various modifications of the margin, as such, not affecting the general outline of the leaf. f, dentate; g, serrate; h, laciniate; k, incised; I, erose. 27...
-Apex
155, Apex of leaves, a, obcordate; 6, emarginate; c, retusc; d, truncate; e, obtuse; f, acute; g, mucronate; h, cuspidate; k. acuminate. 156. Bases of leaves. I, hastate; m,v, sagittate; o, a...
-Of The Compound Leaf
285. Theory. If we conceive of a simple leaf becoming a compound one, on the principle of deficiency of tissue between the veins, it will be evident that the same forms of venation are represented ...
-Chapter VIII. Transformations Of The Leaf
Hitherto wo have considered the leaf as foliage merely - constituted the fit organ of aeration by its large expansion of surface. This is indeed the chief, but not the only aspect in which it is to be...
-Chapter IX. Inflorescence
320. The functions of plant-life are two-fold, namely, vegetation and reproduction: the former looking to the preservation of the individual plant itself, the latter to the species. Corresponding ...
-Inflorescence. Continued
340. Other examples of the involucre are seen in the cup of the acorn, the burr of the chestnut, beech, etc. 341. The forms of inflorescence are exceedingly various, but may all be referred to two ...
-Flowering
364. Definition. In the bud the floral leaves (sepals and petals) infold the floral organs (stamens and pistils) and conceal them from view. Flowering consists of the opening or expansion of these ...
-Chapter X. Morphology Of The Flower
372. The flower as the standard of beauty. So it has ever been regarded. Through this attribute, so evidently divine in its origin, it breathes on the heart an influence which is essentially ...
-Aestivation
383. Definition - importance. This term (from aestivus, of summer) refers to the arrangement of the floral envelops while yet in the bud. It is an important subject, since in general the same mode of ...
-The Floral Organs
396. Technical definition of the flower. The flower is an assemblage of leaves more delicately and variously formed, borne at the upper nodes of the axis' where the internodes are undeveloped. This ...
-The Plan Of The Flower
408. Essential unity combined with endless diversity is every where a characteristic of nature. Herein consists the perpetual charm of her presence and the perpetual reward of her diligent study. ...
-The Plan Of The Flower. Part 2
264, Flower of Saururus (lizard-tail); achlamydeous. 265, Flower of Fraxinus (ash). 266, Flower of Salix (willow,) staminate. 267, pistillate. 421. Imperfect flowers are also of frequent ...
-The Plan Of The Flower. Part 3
276, Flower of Aurantium Limeta (Lime-tree); stamens in five sets. 277, One of the sets. 278, Flower of Hypericum AEgypticum; stamens in three sets. 279, Flower of Tecoma radicans; petals ...
-Chapter XI. The Floral Envelops, Or Perianth
449. Idea of the typical flower. In our idea of the typical flower, the perianth consists of two whorls of expanded floral leaves encircling and protecting the more delicate essential organs in their ...
-The Floral Envelops, Or Perianth. Continued
466. There is also another set of terms in use, of the same application, founded upon a more modern view of the floral structure, viz., calyx adherent, ovary adherent. Which is the better form of ...
-Chapter XII. Of The Essential Organ's. Sec. The Stamens, Or Androecium
491. Position. Within the safe inclosure of the floral envelops stand the essential organs - the stamens and pistils, clearly distinguishable from the perianth by their more slight and delicate forms,...
-The Pistils, Or Gynoecium
511. position; The Gynoecium occupies the center of the flower at the termination of the axis. It consists regularly of a circle of distinct pistils, ( 405), symmetrical in number with the ...
-The Ovules
632. Their nature. Destined to become seeds in the fruit ovules are understood to be altered buds. Their development from the margins and inner surface of the carpel favors this view; for the ...
-Chapter XIII. The Fruit
541. Its origin. After having imbibed the pollen which the anthers have discharged, the pistil or its ovary continues its growth and enlargement, and is finally matured in the form of the peculiar ...
-Pericarp
The fruit consists of the pericarp and the seed. 547. The pericarp (, around) is the envelope of the seeds, consisting of the carpels and whatever other parts they may be combine...
-Pericarp. Continued
565. Etaerio, an aggregate fruit consisting of numerous little drupes united to each other (raspberry) or to the fleshy receptacle (blackberry). 566. Berry, a succulent, thin-skinned pericarp ...
-Chapter XIV. The Seed
582. The seed is the perfected ovule, having an embryo formed within, which is the rudiment of a new plant similar in all respects to the original. The seed consists of a nucleus or kernel invested ...
-Office Of The Seed
601. Its nature and use. After the embryo has reached its wonted growth in the ripened seed, it becomes suddenly inactive and torpid, yet still alive. In this condition it is, in fact, a living plant,...
-Germination
608. Definition. The recommencement of growth in the seed is called germination. It is the awakening of the embryo from its torpor, and the beginning of development in its parts already formed, so. ...
-Chapter XV. The Cryptogamia Or Flowerless Plants
621. Distinction of parts. In the lowest of the Cryptogamic tribes the organs of vegetation and of reproduction are the same. Each cell in the structure grows, nourishes, multiplies. Higher in the ...
-Chapter I. Of The Vegetable Cell
636. Revelations of the microscope. We have now completed a brief survey of the phenomena of visible vegetation. We commenced with the root and now the consideration of the seed with its embryo ...
-Chapter II. The Tissues
662. One-celled plants. The cell, as heretofore described, is endowed with a life within itself. It can imbibe fluids, nourish itself, and reproduce others like itself. It may, therefore, and ...
-Chapter III. The Epidermal System
Includes the external covering of all herbaceous growths, viz., the epidermis, stomata, hairs, glands, cuticle, etc., organs which in older stems give place to bark. 676. The epidermis (skin) consi...
-Chapter IV. The Ligneous System
685. Includes the firm structures of roots, stems, and their appendages, summarily called the wood. 686. Structure. The growing rootlet of the germinating plant exhibits under a microscope a ...
-The Ligneous System. Continued
702. The cellular or green bark succeeds to the liber. Its tissue resembles that of the leaf, being filled with sap and chlorophylle. It grows laterally to accommodate itself to the enlarging ...
-Structure Of Leaves
728. Nature of the leaf. The leaf may be regarded as an expansion of the two outer integuments of the bark, or of the green bark and the epidermis, expanded into a broad, thin surface by a woody ...
-Chapter V. Vegetation, Or The Physiology Of Plant Life
736. Next inquiries. We have now briefly surveyed the mechanism of the plant, both its outward forms and internal structure. We next inquire into the uses of all this wonderful apparatus; what the ...
-Fertilization
751. Capacity of the cell. Such being the vital energy of the cell, it is easy to admit the possibility of either its solitary existence as a plant (Protococcus, etc.), or of its associated existence,...
-Ripening Of Fruits
764. In the pericarps of most fleshy fruits (grape, pear, apple, peach, strawberry), sugar exists before germination, ready formed in the process of ripening. 765. How the fruit GROWS. In its ...
-Chapter VI. Sec. 1. Absorption
770. Office of the root. The absorption of liquids, containing in solution the food of the plant, is the peculiar and indispensable office of the root, as may be shown by an 771. Experiment. Take ...
-Circulation
787. Tendency of the flow. The fluids which are thus taken into the system by absorption can not remain inactive and stagnant. As their inward flow is regular and constant in its season, so must be ...
-Transpiration
808. Transpiration relates to that important office performed by the leaves and other green organs, whereby pure water is separated from the crude sap and given off into the air. It takes place ...
-Respiration
812. Respiration in plants refers to their refations to the atmosphere. So in animals. These relations are in either case vitally important. 813. Experiment. Place a small, healthy potted plant (...
-Chapter VII. Review Of The Principles Of Nutrition
829. The four organogens. It has already appeared in the preceding chapters that plants consist chiefly of four simple organic elements, viz.: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen. The first exists in ...
-Review Of The Principles Of Nutrition. Continued
845. The object of manuring is mainly to increase the quantity of organic matter, or to restore to the soil those qualities which have been taken away by the crops. By various amendments (as gypsum, ...
-Chapter I. Of The Classification Of Plants
858. Systematic botany relates to the arrangement of plants into groups and families, according to their characters, for the purpose of facilitating the study of their names, affinities, habits, ...
-Chapter II. The Artificial System
873. A SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION IS SAID TO BE ARTIFICIAL WHEN, disregarding the real nature of the subjects classified, it rests merely on some obvious external circumstance. As when the books of a ...
-Chapter III. The Natural System
886. The aim of the Natural System is to associate plants into groups and families according to their true natural likenesses and affinities, and thus to make an expression, so far as possible, of ...
-The Natural System. Continued
Or impossible to fix upon characters so definite as to circumscribe completely any one group, while at the same time they exclude every member of the surrounding allied groups. 897. Second division...
-The Vegetable Kingdom
The sub-kingdom, Phaenogamia, or Flowering Plants. Province 1st. Exogenoe, or Dicotyledons. Class I. Angiospermae. Cohort 1. Dialypetalae, or Polypetalae. Cohort 2. Gamopetalae, or Monopetalae....
-Chapter IV. Sec. 1. Nomenclature. - Botanical Analysis
909. The names of the Orders arc Latin adjectives (feminine, plural, to agree with plantae, plants, understood), usually derived from the name of the most prominent, or leading genus, in each, by ...
-Comprising The Flora Of The United States And Canada (Within The Limits Mentioned In The Preface)
Sub-Kingdom, PHAENOGAMIA or FLOWERING PLANTS. - Vegetables having an axial development, leafy appendages and true flowers, their substance composed of cellular, spirovascular, and woody tissue; their ...
-Order I. Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots
Herbs (or woody climbers) with a colorless, acrid juice. Leaves mostly divided, exstipulate, with half-clasping petioles. Calyx. - Sepals 3-15, green or petaloid, distinct, hypogynous. Corolla. - Peta...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 2
9 C. ochroleuca Ait. Lvs. simple, ovate, silky, pubescent beneath. - Mts. and river banks, N. T. to Ga. Rare; stem 12-18' high, sericious. Leaves sessile, entire, simple, 2-4' long, 2/3 as wide, with ...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 3
7 A. cylindrica Gray. Invol. long-petioled; peduncles all naked; head of carpels cylindrical. - Dry soils, Mass., N. H. to Iowa. Plant silky pubescent, 1 - 2f high. Lvs. 2 - 3' wide, 3-parted; segm. c...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 4
3 T. clavatum, D C. Fls. perfect; lvs. cauline: panicle corymbous: ach. stiped. - N. Car. (Curtis). Plant very smoooth, 2f or more in hight Lvs. biteruate, on petioles 1' in length; lfts. roundish, ob...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 5
8 R. pusillus Poir. Erect; lvs. all petiolate, lower ones ovate, upper ones linear-lanceolate; pet. mostly but 3 scarcely longer than the calyx; stam. 8 - 10; carpels ovate, scarcely pointed. - In wet...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 6
19 R. bulbosus L. Hairy; st. erect, bulbous at the base; radical lvs. ternate, lfts. petiolate, incisely dentate, each about 3-cleft; ped. furrowed, cal. reflexed. - This is another acrid species, ver...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 7
14. ZANTH0RHIZA, L. Yellow Root. (Gr. av, yellow; a, root.) Sepals 5; petals 5, of 2 roundish lobes raised on a pedicel; stamens 5 - 10; ovaries 5 - 10, beak...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 8
blue, and when viewed at a little distance the stamens and bearded petals resemble a bee nestling within the calyx. Siberia. 7.D. graudiflorum L. Lvs. palmately 5 - 7-parted, lobes linear, ...
-Ranunculaceae. Crowfoots. Part 9
22. PAEONIA, L. Paeony. Fig. 10 - 23, 30, 291. (The physician Paeon, according to mythology, first used this plant in medicine, and cured Pluto with it.) Sepals 5, unequal, leafy, persistent; petals 5...
-Order II. Magnoliaceae. Magnoliads
Trees or shrubs with alternate, coriaceous, simple, entire or lobed (never toothed) leaves. Leaf buds sheathed with membranous stipules which soon fall off. Fls. large, polypetalous, polyandrous, poly...
-Order III. Anonaceae. Anonads
Trees or shrubs with naked buds, entire, alternate lvs. destitute of stipules. Fls. usually green or brown, axillary, hypogynous, valvate in aestivation. Sepals 3; petals 6, in two circles, sometim...
-Order IV. Schizandraceae
Scrambling shrubs with alternate, simple, exstipulate, punctate leaves; with Fls. diclinous, axillary, small, hypogynous and polygynous; with Gal. and cor. 3-merous in two or several rows, imbricated;...
-Order V. Menispermaceae. Menispermads
Shrubs climbing or twining, with alternate, palmate-veined, exstipulate leaves. Fls. dioecious, rarely or , hypogynous, 3 - 6-gynous. Sepals and petals similar, in 3 or more circles, imbricate...
-Order VI. Berberidaceae. Berberids
Herbs or shrubs with alternate, usually exstipulate, simple or compound leaves. Flowers perfect, hypogynous, imbricated in aestivation. calyx of 2 - 6 deciduous sepals, in 1 or 2 rows, often with peta...
-Order VII. Cabombaceae. Water Shields
Herbs aquatic, with the floating lvs. entire, centrally peltate, the submersed ones dissected. Fls. small, erect, one on each peduncle, hypogynous. Petals 3 - 4, alternate with the 3 or 4 sepals which...
-Order VIII. Nelumbiaceae. Water Beans
Herbs aquatic, large, with prostrate rootstock and radical, peltate leaves, with flowers large, solitary, on long, upright scapes, 4 - 5-sepaled; petals numerous, arranged in many rows, as are also th...
-Order IX. Nymphaeaceae. Water Lilies
Herbs aquatic, with peltate or cordate leaves from a prostrate rhizome. Fls. large, showy, often sweet-scented. Sepals and petals numerous, imbricated, gradually passing into each other. Sep. persiste...
-Order X. Sarraceniaceae. Water Pitchers
Herbs aquatic, in bogs, with fibrous roots, perennial, and with the leaves all radical, urn-shaped, or trumpet-shaped, and large flowers on scapes. Floral envelops 4 - 10. imbricated, the outer greeni...
-Order XII. Papaveraceae. Poppy-Worts
Herbs with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and generally a milky or colored juice. Fls. solitary, on long peduncles, never blue, hypogynous, regular, or . Sep. 2, rarely 3, caducous, and petals 4...
-Order XII. Fumariaceae. Fumeworts
Serbs smooth and delicate, with brittle stems, and a watery juice. Leaves usually alternate, multifid, often furnished with tendrils. Fls. irregular, purple, white or yellow. Sepals 2, very small. Pet...
-Order XIII. Crucifeeae. Crucifers
620. A flower of Sinapis nigra. 1. The stamens (4 long and 2 short) and pistil. 2. Plan of the flower, - stamens in 2 rows, outer row half wanting. 3. A silique, - 4. partly open, showing the ...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 2
5 N. sessiliflorum Nutt Lvs. cuneate-obovate, repandly toothed or sub-entire; pods linear-oblong (5 - 6), subsessile. - Banks of the Miss. Glabrous. Sts. erect, nearly simple. Lvs. attenuated at bas...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 3
5. DENTARIA, L. Pepper-root. (Lat. dens, a tooth; from the tooth-like projections of the rhizome.) Sepals converging; silique lance-linear, with flat, veinless valves, often opening elastically; place...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 4
7. ARABIS, L. Rock Cress. (Name from Arabia, the native country of some of the species.) Sepals mostly erect; silique linear compressed; valves each with one or three longitudinal veins, seeds in a si...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 5
L. Michauxii Torr. (and L. aurea Torn). On wet rocks S. E. Ky. to Texas. Plant 2 - 6' high. Lvs. mostly radical, an inch or two in length, segm. 1 - 5, angular. Fls. at first solitary, on slender scap...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 6
14. HESPERIS, L. Rocket. (Gr. a, evening; when the flower is most fragrant.) Calyx closed, furrowed at base, shorter than the claws of the petals; petals bent obliquely, ...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 7
18. LUNARIA, L. Honesty. (Laf. luna, the moon; from the broad, round silicles.) Sepals somewhat bisaccate at base; petals nearly entire; stamens without teeth; silicle pedicellate, elliptical or lance...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 8
21. VESICARIA, Lam. Bladder-pod. (Lat. vesica, a bladder or blister; from the inflated silicles.) Petals entire; silicle globous or ovoid; inflated valves nerveless, hemispherical or convex; seeds sev...
-Crucifeeae. Crucifers. Part 9
3 L. campestre R. Br. Yellow-seed. Cauline lvs. sagittate, denticulate; silicles ovate, emarginate, scaly, punctate.- In waste places and dry fields, especially among flax. St. strictly erect, round,...
-Order XIV. Capparidaceae. Capparids
Herbs, shrubs, or even trees, destitute of true stipules. Leaves alternate, petiolate, either undivided or palmately compound. Fls. solitary or racemous, cruciform, hy-pogynous. Sep. 4, Pet. 4, unguic...
-Order XV. Resedaceae. Mignonettes
Herbs, with alternate, entire, or pinnate leaves. Stipules minute, gland-like. Fls. in racemes or spikes, small and often fragrant, 4 - 7-merous. Sepals somewhat united at base, unequal, green. Petals...
-Order XVI. Violaceae. Violets
Herbs with simple (often cleft) alternate leaves with stipules. Fls. irregular, spurred, with the sepals, petals and stamens in 5s. Sep. persistent, slightly united, elongated at base, the 2 lateral i...
-Violaceae. Violets. Continued
. palmata. Lvs. (cordate) all or some of them very irregularly hastate-lobed, the middle lobe largest, the earlier lvs. commonly undivided and broadly cordate. Fls. large. Plant 4 - 12' high. (V...
-Order XVII. Cistaceae Rock Roses
Herbs or low shrubs with simple, entire, opposite (at least the lower) leaves, with fls. perfect, regular, hypogynous, in one-sided racemes, very fugacious. Sep. 5, unequal, persistent. Petals 5 (some...
-Order XVIII. Hypericaceae. St. John's Worts
Herbs or shrubs with opposite, entire, dotted, exstipulate leaves, with flowers perfect, regular, hypogynous, 4 or 5-merous, cymous and mostly yellow; sepals unequal, persistent; petals mostly oblique...
-Hypericaceae. St. John's Worts. Part 2
6 H. rosmarinifolium Lam. St straight, erect, sparingly branched; lvs. linear, shorter than the iniernodes, narrowed at base to a petiole; cymules dense, few-flowered, panicled. - Ky. to Fla. Smooth a...
-Hypericaceae. St. John's Worts. Part 3
20 H. ellipticum Hook. Herb smooth; st. quadrangular, simple; lvs. elliptical, obtuse, somewhat clasping, pellucid-punctate; cyme pedunculate; sep. unequal; sty. united to near the summit, as long as ...
-Order XIX. Droseraceae. Sundews
Herbs growing in bogs, often covered with glandular hairs, with lvs. alternate or all radical, mostly circinate (rolled from top to base) in vernation; fls. regular, cypogynous, 5-merous, the sepals, ...
-Order XX. Elatinaceae. Water Peppers
Herbs small, annual, with opposite leaves and membranous stipules. Fls. minute axillary. Sepals 2 - 5, distinct or slightly coherent at base, persistent. Petals hypogynous, as many as the sepals. Sta....
-Order XXI. Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts
Herbs with swollen joints, opposite, entire leaves, and regular flowers. Sepals 4 or 5. persistent, distinct, or cohering into a tube. Petals 4 or 5, unguiculate or not, bifid or entire, mostly remove...
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 2
2 S. (Vaccaria) vulgaris Mdik. Lvs. ovate, lanceolate, sessile; fls. in pan-niculate cymes; cal. pyramidal, 5-angled, smooth; bracts membranous, acute.- Gardens and cultivated grounds. Whole pla...
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 3
13 S. Pennsylvanica Mx. Viscid-pubescent; sts. numerous; lvs. from the root spatulate or cuneate, of the stem lanceolate; cyme few-flowered; pet. slightly emarginate, subcrenate.- Dry, sandy soils, N...
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 4
3 C. arvense L. Pubescent, somewhat caespitous; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acute, often longer than the internodes; cyme on a long, terminal peduncle, four-flowered; petals more than twice longer than th...
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 5
Arenaria. Leaves and sepals acute. Seeds not appendaged ....... Nos. 1, 2 MOERINGIA. Leaves and sepals obtuse. Seeds strophiolate.............................
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 6
2 S. erecta L. Ascending, simple, glabrous; pet. as long as the lanceolate, acute sepals; sep. pet. and sta. 4.- Dry places, Md. Sts. smooth and glaucous, 2 or 3' high, with only one or two fls. Lvs....
-Caryopiiyllaceae. Pinkworts. Part 7
the nail; i. e., the whitlow; supposed cure for.) Sepals 5, linear-oblong, connivent, slightly hooded and mucronate or awned near the apex; petals or sterile filaments very narrow and scale-like or ...
-Order XXII. Portulacaceae. Purslanes
Herbs succulent or fleshy, with entire leaves, no stipules, and regular flowers. Sepals 2. united at base, rarely 3 or 5. Petals 5, rarely 0, more or less imbricated in aestivation. Sta. variable i...
-Order XXIII. Mesembryaceae. Ice-Plants
Plants fleshy, of singular and various form, yet beautiful, with opposite, fleshy leaves. Fls. solitary, axillary and terminal, remarkable for their profusion, brilliant, and of long duration. Sepals ...
-Order XXIV. Malvaceae. Mallows
Herbs or shrubs with alternate, stipulate lvs. and regular flowers, with 5 sepals united at base, valvate in the bud, often subtended by an involucel; 5 petals hypo-gynous, convolute in the bud with t...
-Malvaceae. Mallows. Part 2
3. LAVATERA, L. (Named in honor of the two Lavaters, physicians of Zurich.) Calyx subtended by an involucel of 3 united bracteoles; stigmas , filiform; carpels , 1-celled, 1-seeded, inde...
-Malvaceae. Mallows. Part 3
2 A. striatum Dick. Shrub, with 5-lobed, long-stalked lvs., the lobes acuminate, dentate; peduncles long, nodding, with a handsome bell-shaped flower, the column exserted. - An elegant green-house shr...
-Malvaceae. Mallows. Part 4
7 H. Carolinianus Muhl. Herbaceous, glabrous; lvs. cordate, ovate, acuminate, some of them obscurely 3-lobed; ped. distinct from the petiole; petals pubescent inside; caps. hairy inside; sds. hispid. ...
-Order XXV. Sterculiaceae. Silk Cottons
Large trees or shrubs with simple or compound leaves, with flowers similar to those of the Mallow, except that the anthers are 2-celled and turned outwards. Fruit capsular, of 3, rarely 5 carpels. ...
-Order XXVI. Tiliaceae. Lindenblooms
Trees or shrubs (rarely herbs) with simple, stipulate, alternate, dentate lvs., with fls. axillary, hypogynous, usually perfect and polyadelphous; with the sepals 4 or 5, deciduous, valvate in aestiva...
-Order XXVII. Camelliaceae. Camellias Or Teaworts
Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, feather-veined, exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, polyandrous, hypogynous, cyanic, with sepals and petals imbricated, the former often unequal in size. Stame...
-Order XXVIII. Aurantiaceae. Orangeworts
Trees or shrubs, glabrous, abounding in little transparent receptacles of volatile oil, with lvs. alternate, articulated with the petiole which is frequently winged. Fls. regular, 3 - 5-merous, petals...
-Order XXIX. Meliaceae
Trees or shrubs with exstipulate, often pinnate leaves. Fls. 3 - 5-merous, stamens 6 - 10, coherent into a long tube with sessile anthers. Disk hypogynous, sometimes cup-like; style 1. Ovary compound,...
-Order XXX. Linaceae. Flaxworts
Herbs with entire, simple leaves and no stipules; with /lowers regular, symmetrical, and perfect, 5-(rarely 3 or 4-)merous. Calyx strongly imbricated in the bud, corolla convolute, hypogynous; stamens...
-Order XXXI. Geraniaceae. Gerania
Herbs or shrubs swollen and separable at the joints, with stipulate, palmate-veined leaves and symmetrical, hypogynous, 5-merous flowers. Sepals imbricated and petals convolute in aestivation; stamens...
-Order XXXII. Oxalidaceae. Wood Sorrrls
Stems low, herbaceous, with an acid juice and alternate compound leaves. Flowers regular, symmetrical, hypogynous, 5-merous. Sepals persistent, imbricated; petals convolute in aestivation. Stamens 10,...
-Order XXXIII. Zygophyllaceae. Bean Capers
Herbs, shrubs or frees, with leaves opposite, mostly pinnate (not dotted) and stipulate; flowers 4 or 5-merous, calyx imbricated and corolla convolute in aestivation. Stamens twice as many as petals, ...
-Order XXXIV. Balsaminaceae. Jewel Weeds
Herbs annual, with a succulent stem and watery juice. Lvs. simple, without stipules. Fls. very irregular and unsymmetrical. Sepals 5, deciduous, the 2 upper connate, the lowest spurred or gibbous. Pet...
-Order XXXV. Tropaeolaceae. Trophtworts
Plants herbaceous, smooth, climbing or twining, with a pungent, watery juice. Lvs. peltate or palmate. Fls. irregular, axillary, perfect. Sepals 3 to 5, colored. united, the upper one spurred. Peta...
-Order XXXVI. Limnanthaceae. Limnanths
Herbs annual, with an acrid, watery juice, alternate, pinnatifid, exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, 3 to 5-merous, perfect. Sepals united at base, persistent, valvate in aestivation. Petals maresce...
-Order XXXVIII. Anacardiaceae. Sumachs
Trees or shrubs, with a resinous, gummy, caustic, or even milky juice. Leaves alternate, simple or ternate, or unequally pinnate, without pellucid dots. Fls. terminal or axillary, with bracts, commonl...
-Order XXXIX. Pittosporaceae
Trees or Shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves and regular flowers. Calyx and corolla 4 or 5-merous, imbricated in the bud, deciduous; stamens 5, hypogynous, alternate with the petals. Ovary free...
-Order XL. Aceraceae. Maples
Trees or shrubs, with opposite, usually simple and palmate-veined leaves. Stipules 0. Flowers often polygamous, in axillary corymbs or racemes, hypogynous. Sepals 5, rarely 4 to 9, more or less united...
-Order XLI. Sapindaceae. Indian Soapworts
frees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, with simple or compound, alternate or opposite leaves. Flowers mostly unsymmetrical and irregular, 4 or 5-merous, with the sepals and petals both imbricated in the bud,...
-Order XLII. Celastraceae. Staff Trees
Shrubs with simple leaves alternate or opposite, with flowers small, regular, 4 or 5-merous, perigynous, sepals and petals both imbricated in aestivation, stamens alternate with the petals and inserte...
-Order XLIII. Rhamnaceae. Buckthorns
Shrubs or small trees, often spiny, with simple, alternate lvs. with flowers regular, sometimes apetalous or otherwise imperfect; with the stamens perigynous, as many (4 or 5) as the valvate sepals, a...
-Order XLIV. Vitaceae. Vines
Shrubs with a watery juice, tumid nodes, and usually climbing by tendrils; flowers small, regular, racemous, often polygamous or dioecious; calyx minute, truncated, the limb obsolete or 5-toothed; pet...
-Order XLV. Polygalaceae. Milkworts
Herbs or shrubs, with the leaves mostly simple and without stipules. Flowers irregular, unsymmetrical, hypogynous, perfect. Sepals 5, very unequal, distinct, 3 exterior, 2 (wings) interior larger, pet...
-Polygalaceae. Milkworts. Continued
8 P. Nuttallii Torr. & Gr. St. erect, somewhat fastigiate; lvs. linear; spikes acute, roundish-oblong, dense; wings elliptical, attenuate at base; crest minute; caruncle notched, lateral on the thick ...
-Order XLVI. Leguminosae. Leguminous Plants
Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate, usually compound, margins entire. Stipules 2, at the tumid base of the petiole. Stipels commonly 2, Sepals 5, more or less united, often unequal, the odd one...
-14. Loteae
- Leaves simple, with yellow flowers. - Keel oblong, straight................Genista. 25 - Keel falcate, acuminate..........Crotalaria. 26 - Leaves palmately 5 to 15-foliate (rarely simple). (Ge...
-14. Loteae. Part 2
5. ACA'CIA, Necker. (Gr. to sharpen; alluding to the spines.) Flowers polygamous; calyx valvate, 4 to 5-toothed; petals 4 or 5, united below, rarely distinct; stamens 8 to 200; legume continuous, no...
-14. Loteae. Part 3
3 C. Marilandica L. American Senna. Perennial, smooth; lfts. 6 to 9 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, an obovoid gland near the base of the common petiole; fls. in axillary racemes and terminal pan...
-14. Loteae. Part 4
6 B. villosa Ell. Villous-pubescent; petioles almost 0; lfts. lance-oblong, or oblanceolate; stip. lance-linear, persistent; rac. long (erect?); bracts minute, deciduous; ped. not secund; leg. oblong....
-14. Loteae. Part 5
2 L. ochroleucus Hook. St slender; lfts. about 3 pairs, broadly ovate; stip. semi-cordate, large; ped. 7 to 10-flowered, shorter than the leaves. - A small, delicate species, rare, in shady places and...
-14. Loteae. Part 6
7 V. hirsuta Koch. Lfts. linear, truncate, mucronate; stip. semisagittate, narrow; ped. 3 to 6-flowered, shorter than leaves; kg. hirsute, 2-seeded. - A creeping weed in cultivated fields, N. Y. to S....
-14. Loteae. Part 7
Mostly herbaceous. Lvs. unequally pinnate. H. boreale Nutt. Sts. erect; lvs. subsessile, of 6 to 10 pairs of oblong, smooth-ish lfts.; stip. united, sheathing, with subulate points; rac spicate,...
-14. Loteae. Part 8
11 D. canescens DC. St. striate, scabrous; lfts. ovate, rather obtuse, scabrous on the upper surface, soft-villous beneath; stip. large, oblique, acuminate; pan. terminal, very long, densely canescent...
-14. Loteae. Part 9
leg. roundish-ovate, being much longer than the calyx. - Dry woods, Can and II. S. Sts. 1 to 2f high. Cor. 3 to 4 long. Pods about 2 long. Jl., Aug.- Varies gradually into the following dive...
-14. Loteae. Part 10
A splendid ornament of the garden from Oreg. St. 3 to 5f high. Rac. a foot or more long. Fls. scattered (subverticillate in . grandifolius, Lindl.), white, purple, or yellow, in different var...
-14. Loteae. Part 11
8 T. pratense L. Red Clover. Ascending, thinly hirsute; lfts. spotted, oval, entire; stip. ovate, cuspidate-acuminate; heads sessile; lower tooth of the cal. longer than the four others which are equa...
-14. Loteae. Part 12
. Often glandular-dotted; stip. cohering with the base of the petiole. Fls. cyanic. * Leaves palmately 1 and 8 (rarely 5)-foliate...................................... Nos....
-14. Loteae. Part 13
2 A. glabra Desf. Nearly glabrous, shrubby; lfts. oblong or elliptical, dotted, petiolulate, the lowest pair close to the stem; fls. subsessile; cal. teeth short, the 2 upper obtuse, the 3 lower longe...
-14. Loteae. Part 14
3 A. obcordatus Ell. Nearly glabrous, decumbent or assurgent; stip. lanceolate; lfts. 7 to 12 pairs, obcordate or obovate, ped. about as long as the lvs., few-flowered, fls. pedicellate; cal. teeth su...
-14. Loteae. Part 15
(always?) May, Jl. . gracilior. Nearly glabrous, slender; lfts. few, oblong (9 by 3.) Plant 3 to 9' long. Pod small (15 long.) Fls. reddish purple as above. - Covington, La. (Hale.) 4i....
-14. Loteae. Part 16
46. VIG'NA, Savi. (In memory of Dominic Vigna, Commentator on Theophrastus.) Calyx of 4 lobes, the upper twice broader, the lower longer; vexillum broad with 2 callosities near the base of the limb; k...
-14. Loteae. Part 17
5 P. vulgaris L. St. twining; lfts. ovate-acuminate; rac. solitary, shorter than the Ivs.; pedicels in pairs; cal. as short as its two bracts at base; leg. pendulous, long-mucronate; seed reniform, va...
-14. Loteae. Part 18
4 G. pilosa Nutt. St. retrorsely hirsute; lfts. 3, oval-oblong, retuse at apex, finely hirsute on both surfaces, paler beneath; rac. twice or thrice longer than the lvs., with scattered, distant fls. ...
-Order XLVII. Rosaceae. Roseworts
Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate, stipulate lvs. and regular flowers. Sepals 5, rarely fewer, united, often reenforced by as many bractlets. Petals 5, rarely 0, distinct, inserted on the disk whi...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 2
Leaves evergreen. Racemes axillary, bractless.......................................... No. 1 Leaves deciduous. - Racemes leafy at base........
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 3
4 P. Chicasa Mx. Chickasaw Plum. Branches spinous; lvs. oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, glandular serrulate, with the glands pellucid, not at all acuminata, nearly smooth; umbels 2 to 3-flowered, p...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 4
2 P. serrulata Lindl. Lvs. oblong, acute, serrulate; pedicels longer than calyx. - China. Lvs. very smooth and shining. Fls. small, white. Both are hardy at the South. 10. ERIOBO'TRYA, Lindl. Loqua...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 5
4 C. apiifolia Mx. Pubescent, thorny; lvs. deltoid, truncate at base, deeply 5 to 7-cul-lobed, lobes incisely toothed at end, petiole slender, often longer than the blade; sep. lanceolate; sty. 2 or 3...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 6
13. PY'RUS, L. Pear, Apple, etc. (Celtic peren; Anglo-Saxon pere; Fr. poire; Lat. pyrus; Eng. pear.) Calyx urceolate, limb 5-cleft; petals 5, roundish; styles 5 (2 or 3), often united at base; pome cl...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 7
15. ROSA, Tourn. Rose. (Celtic rhos, red; Gr. ; Lat, rosa; Eng. rose.) Calyx tube urceolate, fleshy, contracted at the orifice, limb 5-cleft, the segments somewhat imbricated in aestivation, and most...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 8
10 R. micrantha Smith. Small-flowered Sweet Brier. St. glabrous, armed with few, equal, strong, recurved prickles; lfts. 5 to 7, ovate, rusty-glandular beneath, fls. solitary, small; sep. deciduous fr...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 9
22 R. Gallica L. Common French Rose. St. and petioles armed with numerous, fine, scattered prickles; lfts. mostly 5, elliptical or oval, thick; fls. erect; petals, large, spreading; sep. ovate; fr. ov...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 10
5 G rivale. L. Pubescent; st. subsimple; radical lvs. lyrate; stip. ovate, acute; fls. nodding, purple; pet. as long as the erect cal. segm.: upper joint of the persistent stylo plumous. - A fine plan...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 11
reflexed; fr. largo, black. - Md. to Fla., common. Sts. long, slender, terete, some of the prickles at length recurved. Lfts. small (about 12 by 8), minutely pubescent. Petioles slender, much shorte...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 12
1 W. fragarioides Traut. Lvs. trifoliate; lfts. broad-cuneiform, incisely den-tate-crenate, ciliate; scapes bracteate, many-flowered; cal. tube obconie. - A handsome plant, in hilly woods, Can. to Ga....
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 13
4 P. Canadensis L. Villous-pubescent; st. sarmentous, procumbent and ascending; lfts. 5, obovate, silky beneath, cut-dentate towards the apex, entire and attenuate below; stip. hairy, often cleft; ped...
-Rosaceae. Roseworts. Part 14
4 S. salicifolia L. Nearly glabrous; lvs. oblong, obovate or lanceolate, sharply serrate; rac. forming a more or less dense, terminal panicle; carp. 5. - A small shrub, in meadows, thickets...
-Order XLVIII. Calycanthaceae. Calycanths
Shrubs with opposite, simple, entire, exstipulate leaves. Flowers solitary, axillary, with the numerous sepals and petals confounded, in several rows, all united below into a fleshy tube or cup. Stame...
-Order XLIX. Myrtaceae. Myrtleblooms
Trees and shrubs, without stipules. Lvs. opposite, entire, punctate, usually with a rein running close to the margin. Cal. adherent below to the compound ovary, the limb 4 or 5-cleft, valvate. Petals ...
-Order L. Melastomaceae. Melastomes
Trees, shrubs or herbs with square branches, and usually exstipulate. Lvs. opposite, entire and undivided, without dots and with several veins. Cal. persistent, the tube urceolate, cohering with only ...
-Order LI. Lytiiraceae. Loosestrifes
Herbs, rarely shrubs, with mostly opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves. Calyx tubular, the limb 4 to 7-lobed, sometimes with as many intermediate teeth. Petals inserted into the calyx between the lobe...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads
Herbs rarely shrubs, with the flowers 4 (sometimes 2 or 3)-merous, with the calyx tube adhering to the 2 to 4-celled ovary, and teeth valvate in the bud; the petals convolute in the bud, sometimes obs...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads. Part 2
3 J. leptocarpa Nutt. Hirsute; fls. mostly 6-merous, small; st. erect; lvs. lanceolate, subsessile; caps. linear, much longer than the pedicel, crowned with the lanceolate, acuminate sep. - Fla. and...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads. Part 3
8 OE. linearis Mx. Hoary puberulent; st. slender, erect, simple or few-brauched; lvs. linear, subentire, obtuse, the lowest linear-spatulate; fls. large, corymbed at the summit of the branches, tube o...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads. Part 4
7. LUDWIG'IA, L. Bastard Loosestrife. (To C. D. Ludwig, Prof. of Botany at Leipzic, 1750.) Calyx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, limb 4-lobed, mostly persistent; petals 4, equal, obcordate, often...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads. Part 5
15 L. spatulata Torr. & Gr. Branched, ascending, downy and not succulent; lvs. oval, tapering to a petiole; fls. very small, apetalous, sessile; caps. pubescent, ovate, somewhat 4-sided, small.- Midd...
-Order LII Onagraceae. Onagrads. Part 6
4 M. scabratum Mx. Lvs. pinnatifid in whorls of 4s and 5s; fls. verticillate, axillary, upper fls. , with 4 stam., lower ones ; floral lvs. linear, pectinately toothed; fr. 8-angled, the ridges...
-Order LIII. Loasaceae. Loasads
Herbs often hispid with stinging hairs, with leaves opposite or alternate and no stipules. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx adherent to the ovary, 4 or 5-parted, lobes persistent, equal. Petals 5 or ...
-Order LIV. Cactaceae. Indian Figs
Stems succulent and shrubby, usually angular or 2-edged or jointed. Leaves almost always wanting; prickles numerous and formidable. Flowers solitary, usually showy and of short duration. Sepals and pe...
-Order LV. Grossulaceae. Currants
Low shrubs, often prickly with alternate, palmately lobed leaves. Calyx 5-lobed, adherent to the 1-celled ovary, bearing at top the corolla of 5 petals alternating with the 5 short stamens. Anth. intr...
-Order LVI. Turneraceae
Herbs with simple, alternate, exstipulate leaves, with the solitary Flowers 5-mo-rous, the petals and stamens inserted on the throat of the calyx. Ovary free, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae; styl...
-Order LVII. Passifloraceae. Passionworts
Plants herbaceous or shrubby, usually climbing, with alternate lvs. and foliaceous stipules. Fls. axillary or terminal, perfect. often with a 3-leaved involucre. Sepais 4 to 5, united below into a tub...
-Order LVIII. Cucurbitaceae. Cucurbits
Herbs succulent, creeping or climbing by tendrils, with alternate leaves. Flowers monoecious or polygamous, never blue. Calyx 5-toothed, adherent. Petals 5, united, inserted on the calyx, the lobes al...
-Cucurbitaceae. Cucurbits. Continued
Stamens 5, triadelphous. Stigmas 3; fruit a berry, ovoid, small, many-seeded. - Tendrils simple, filiform. M. pendula L. Lvs. roundish, cordate, 5-lobed or angled, pointed, slightly hispid...
-Order LIX. Begoniaceae. Begoniads
Herbs or succulent undershrubs with an acrid juice. Leaves alternate, oblique at the base, with large, scarious stipules. Flowers diclinous, pink-colored, cymous- Calyx adherent, colored. Sepals of...
-Order LX. Crassulaceae. House-Leeks
Plants herbaceous or shrubby, succulent. Lvs. entire or pinnatifid. Slip. 0. Flowers sessile, usually in cymes and perfectly symmetrical. Sepals 3 to 20, more or less united at base, persistent. Petal...
-Order LXI. Saxifragaceae. Saxifrages
Herbs or shrubs. Lvs. alternate or opposite, sometimes stipulate. Sepals 4 or 5, cohering more or less, and partly or wholly adherent Petals as many as the sepals, inserted between the lobes of the ca...
-Saxifragaceae. Saxifrages. Part 2
Leaves opposite (small) on the prostrate stem. Fls. purplish............................ No. 1 Leaves alternate on the asc...
-Saxifragaceae. Saxifrages. Part 3
7. SULLIVAN'TIA, Torr. & Gray. (To Wm. S. Sullivant, the distinguished muscologist.) Calyx campanulate, coherent with the base of the ovary, segments ovate, acute; petals oval-spatulate, ungniculate, ...
-Saxifragaceae. Saxifrages. Part 4
1 H. arborescens L. Lvs. ovate, obtuse, or cordate at base, acuminate, serrate-dentate, paler beneath, nearly smooth; fls. in fastigiate cymes. - An elegant shrub, native in the Mid and West. States, ...
-Order LXII. Hamamelaceae. Witchhazelworts
Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple leaves and deciduous stipules. Flowers in heads or spikes, often polygamous or monoecious. Calyx adherent. Petals linear, valvate or convolute in bud or wanting....
-Order LXIII. Umbelliferae. Umbelworts
Herbs with hollow, striate stems, sheathing petioles and flowers in umbels. Calyx adherent to the ovary, limb entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, usually inflected at the point imbricate in aestivation. St...
-Analysis of The Genera
Flowers in simple umbels, sometimes spicate. Leaves simple, (a) Flowers in capitate umbels, i. e., sessile, forming dense heads, (b) Flowers in regularly compound umbels, not sess...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 2
Scalesor chaff of the heads entire... .....................Nos. 1 - 3 Scalesor chaff of the heads tricuspidate......... ....Nos.4 - 7...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 3
. branching, with spreading hairs. Lvs. very large, on channeled stalks. Lfts. irregularly cut-lobed and serrated. Its huge umbels are often a foot broad. Involucre of lanceolate, deciduous leaflets. ...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 4
1 D. Carota L. St hispid; petioles veined beneath; lvs. tripinnate or tripin-natifid, the tegm. linear, cuspidate-pointed; umbel3 dense, concave. - The word kar in Celtic signifies red, hence carrot. ...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 5
Smooth, erect, glaucous. Lvs. bi or tri-ternate, lfts. entire. Umbels perfect, with no involucre or involucels. Fls. yellow. Z integerrima DC. Rocky woods, etc. Mich., N. Y., to Ga. Plant 1...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 6
2 L. actaefdlium Mx. Angelico. Glabrous; lvs. triternate, with ovate, dent-serrate lfts.; umbels numerous, forming a whorled panicle or a triply compound umbel; invol. and involucels of about 3 short,...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 7
27. CRYPTOTaeNIA, DC. Hone-wort. (Gr. , to conceal, , a wreath or border, from the obselete border of calyx.) Margin of the calyx obsolete ; petals with an infiexed point; fruit linear-oblong ...
-Analysis of The Genera. Part 8
1 S. latifolium L. St. angular, sulcate; lfts. oblong-lanceolate, acutely and coarsely serrate, acute; cat. teeth elongated. - A tall plant in swamps and ditches, N. J.? to Ind. and Can. St. 3 to 4f h...
-Order LXIV. Araliaceae. Araliads
Trees, shrubs or herbs closely allied to the Umbellifers in the leaves, inflorescence and flowers, but the styles and cells of the ovary are usually more than 2 (3 to 5) cells 1-ovuled; fruit baccate ...
-Order LXV. Cornaceae. Cornels
Trees and shrubs, seldom herbs, without stipules. Leaves opposite (alternate in one species), simple, with pinnae veinlets. Flowers 4-merous. . Sepals adherent to the ovary, the limb minute, 4-toothed...
-Order LXVI. Caprifoliaceae. Honeysuckles
Shrubs, rarely herbs, often twining with opposite leaves, no stipules ; flowers clustered and often fragrant, 5-parted and often irregular; corolla monopetalous, tubular or rotate; stamens inserted on...
-Caprifoliaceae. Honeysuckles. Part 2
2 L. oblougifolia Hook. Lvs. oblong or oval, velvety-pubescent beneath, cor. limb deeply bilabiate; tube gibbous at base; ped. long, fi.iform, erect; berries connate or united into one, globous, purpl...
-Caprifoliaceae. Honeysuckles. Part 3
1 to 11/2', finely serrate, ending in a long, narrow point. Ova. sleuder, 4 to 5 long, about half the length of the greenish yellow corolla Sta. and sty. much exserted. Stig. capitate. Jn. 2 D. se...
-Caprifoliaceae. Honeysuckles. Part 4
. molle. Poison Haw. Soft, rusty, tomentous throughout the stalks, lvs. and cymes; lvs. rather acute; lis. large. - Term, to Ga. (Misses Keen) and La. (Hale). (V. molle'Mx.) 7 V. Lentago L. ...
-Order LXVIL Rubiaceae. Madderworts
Trees, shrubs and herbs. Lvs. opposite, somewhat verticillate, entire. Stipules between the petioles, sometimes resembling the leaves. Calyx tube more or less ad-herent to the ovary; limb 4 to 5-cleft...
-Order LXVIL Rubiaceae. Madderworts. Part 2
9 G. asprellum Mx. Bough Cleavers or Clivers. St. diffuse, very branching, rough backwards; lvs. in Gs, 5s, or 4s, lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate, margin and midvein retrorsely aculeate; ped. shor...
-Order LXVIL Rubiaceae. Madderworts. Part 3
1 D. Virginiana L. Procumbent, nearly glabrous or hirsute; sts. squarish ; lvs-lanceolate, sessile, entire; bristles of the stip. longer than the sheaths; Ms. solitary, opposite; cor. salver form, tub...
-Order LXVIL Rubiaceae. Madderworts. Part 4
7 H. angustifolia Mx. Slender, tall, strictly erect; lvs. narrowly linear, 1-veined; fls. very numerous, short-pedicelled, in compact, terminal cymules; cal. lobes subulate; caps, obovoid or top-shape...
-Order LXVIII. - Valerianaceae. Valerians
Herbs with opposite leaves and no stipules. Calyx adherent, the limb either membranous or resembling a pappus. Corolla tubular or funnel-form, 4 to 5-lobed, sometimes spurred at base. Stamens distinct...
-Order LXIX. Dipsaceae. Teaselworts
Herbs with whorled or opposite leaves and no stipules. Ftowers in dense heads surrounded by an involucre as in Composite. Calyx adherent, pappus-like, surrounded by a special scarious involucel, corol...
-Order LXX. Composite. Asterworts
Plants herbaceous or shrubby, with compound flowers (of the old botanists) i. e., (he flowers in dense heads (capitula) surrounded by an involucre of many bracts (scales), with 5 united anthers and th...
-Suborders And Tribes
I TUBULIFLORae. - Corolla of the perfect fls. tubular, 5-lobed. (A) Tribe 1, Vernoniace/E. Branches of the stylo long, slender, terete, and hispid all over. Heads discoid ; flowers all alike perfec...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 2
5 V. ovalifolia Torr. & Gr. Lvs. lance-oval or lance-oblong, acute, sessile, sharply serrate, veiny ; cyme loose, fastigiate ; hds. rather large, scales appressed, acute or mucronate, much shorter tha...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 3
3 C. bellidifolius Torr. & Gr. Low, nearly glabrous, tufted; root-lvs. ppatulate. petiolate, obtuse, 3-veined. cauline mostly linear; branches with 1 to 5 heads; scales herbaceous, glabrous, oblong an...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 4
11 L. pycnostachya Mx. Simple, more or less hirsute, very leafy; Ivs. rigid, ascending, straight, lower ones long, lanceolate, veined, obtuse, upper short, narrow-linear ; spike dense and thick, long ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 5
3 E. pinnatifidum Ell. Pubescent; lvs. laciniate-pinnatifid, segm. linear, toothed or entire, the lower whorled in 4s, middle opposite, upper alternate; hds. small, numerous, 5 to 9-flowered, in a fas...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 6
15 E. sessilifolium L. Lvs. opposite, amplexicaul, ovate-lanceolate, rounded at the base, very smooth, serrate; st. smooth; inner scales oblong-obovate, oblwe.- Plant 2 to 4f high, in rocky woods, Mas...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 7
Lvs. 1 to 2 1/2' long, 2/3 as wide. Fls. 20 to 50 in a head, of a beautiful sky blue, reddish in fading. Aug., Sept. 13. TUSSILA 'GO, Touro. Colt's-foot. (Altered from the Lat. tussis, cough; consi...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 8
Biotia, DC. Scales closely imbricated, slightly tipped with green. Hds, corymbous. rays 6 to 15 ,white or roseate.Lvs. cordate, petiolate, serrat,large..............
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 9
12 A. Shortii Hook. Slender and nearly glabrous, simple or somewhat branched above; lvs. lance-ovate, deeply cordate, petiolatc, long-acuminate, entire, upper ones sessile and obtuse at base; hds. mid...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 10
22 A. sericeus Vent. Sts. slender, clustered, glabrous below, silky pubescent, branched above; lvs. clothed on both sides with a dense, appressed, silky-canes-cent tomentum, lance-oblong, entire, acut...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 11
. fragilis. Cauline lvs. serrulate or entire, short; hds. much scattered on the branches. (A. fragilis Willd.) 32 A. miser Ait. T. & G. Starved Aster. St. racemous-paniculate, hairy or pubescent; ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 12
4. SCARIOSI. White-scaled Asters. 42 A. acuminatus Mx. Sit simple, flexuous, angular, branching into a corymb-ouspanicle above; lvs. broad-lanceolate, narrowed and entire at the base, sen-at...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 13
20. ERIG'ERON, L. Flea-bane. White-weed. (Gr. , the spring, , old man ; because it is soon hoary.) Heads many-flowered, sub-hemispherical ; ray-flowers , very numerous (40 to 200), narr...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 14
; involucre hemispherical, of equal scales; receptacle subalveolate, conical; pappus none. - Low herbs, either (1) and caulescent or and acaulescent. Hds. solitary. 1 B. integrifdlia Mx....
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 15
2 S. discoidea (Ell.) Villous-pubescent, hoary; lvs. ovate, petiolate, coarsely serrate, the upper ovate-lanceolate; rac. erect, in a virgate or thyreoid pan.; hds. discoid, about 12 - flowered; scale...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 16
l3. Taller; hds. more numerous, in short, glomerate clusters, forming a dense, slender, interrupted rac. - Near the Willey House, White Mts. 13 S. virgata Mx. Glabrous, strict, virgate, tall, simpl...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 17
A large, showy species, in low, open grounds, U. S. and Can. St. green, some-times purplish, 4 to 7f high, often much branched above. Lvs. 2 to 4 to 7' long, acuminate at each end, often with divergen...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 18
36 S. Muhlenbergii Torr. & Gr. St furrowed, glabrous ; lvs. smooth both sides, strongly and sharply serrate, the radical ovate, petiolate, cauline, ellipticaManceo late, acuminate at each end; rac. se...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 19
48 S. tenuifolia Ph. St. angular, smooth, with many fastigiate branches; lvs. narrowly linear, spreading, mostly 1-veined, scabrous on the margin, the axils leafy; corymb terminal, consisting of clust...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 20
. thick, leafy, about 8' high. Hds. small, bright yellow, in crowded, paniculate corymbs. Rays 3-toothed at the apex. Sept., Oct. (Inula falcata Ph.) 5 C. Mariana Nutt. Silky-araclinoid; lvs. oblon...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 21
3 B. glomeruliflora Pers. Glabrous, minutely scurfy; lvs. all obovate tapering to a short petiole, very obtuse, repand-few-toothed ; hds. in sessile glomertdes, in the axils of the upper lvs. - Va. to...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 22
41. SIL'PHIUM, L. Rosin-weed. (The ancient name of some resinous plant.) Heads many-flowered; ray-flowers numerous, in 2 or 3 rows, fertile, outer row ligulate ; disk-flowers sterile ; involucre cam-p...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 23
43. PARTHE'NIUM, L. (Gr. , a virgin; from its medicinal efficacy.) Heads many-flowered ; ray-flowers 5, somewhat ligulate, fertile; disk flowers tubular, sterile; involucre hemispherical, scales in 2...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 24
47. MELAN'THERA, Cass. (Gr. , black, Lat. anthem, anther.) Heads discoid; flowers all tubular, ; scales in 2 subequal series; receptacle chaffy, the pales partly investing the flowers; uchenia s...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 25
Rays large ,drooping. Disk columnar, atleast in fruit.... ..Nos.1,2 Rays spreading. Disk dark purple, conical or rounded. (*) ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 26
2 H. debilis Nutt. Decumbent, slender; lvs. ovate, serrulate, petiolate, mostly alternate; hds. small, solitary, pedunculate ; scales narrow, slender-pointed; ach. pubescent. - (J) Fla., La. (Not with...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 27
15 H. cinereous. . SULLIVANTH Torr. & Gr. Rough, cinereous-pubescent; st. virgate, somewhat naked and branched above; lvs. opposite (the upper often alternate), ovate-oblong, narrowed to the sessile ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 28
56. ACTINOM'ERIS, Nutt. (Gr. , a ray, , a part; partially radiate.) Heads many-flowered, ray flowers 4 to 14, rarely 0; involucre scales foliaccous, subequal, in 1 to 3 series ; receptacle conic...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 29
10 C. verticillata L. Glabrous branched lvs. 3-divided, closely sessile, divisions pinnately or bipinnately parted, segments filiform, linear, obtuse; rays acute or (ia cultivation) obtuse and 2 or 3-...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 30
2 B. frondosa L. Hds. discoid; outer invol. C times as long as the flower, its leaflets ciliate at base; lower lvs. pinnate, upper ones ternate, lanceolate, serrate; ach. 1-awned. - (1) A common weed,...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 31
1 G. lanceolata Mx. Pubescent; lvs. lanceolate or linear, sessile, the lower petiolate; scales as long as the disk; disk-Ms. with long, subulate, pubescent teeth; receptacle smooth, (not fimbrillate!)...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 32
3 L. incisa Torr. & Gr. Glabrous; lvs. lanceolate, sessile, not decurrent, sinuate-pinnatifid or incised; pappus awnless, lacerated; rays about 40, in 2 or 3 rows; ach. glabrous. - Ga. (Le Conte). ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 33
2 A. ptarmica L. Sneezewort. Lvs. linear, acuminate, equally and sharply serrate, smooth. - Found in moist grounds and shady places, Can. and N. Y. (Pursh), Mass. (Nichols). Plant about 15' high, bran...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 34
2 A. Absinthium L. Common Wormwood. Lvs. multifld, clothed with short, silky pubescence, loth sides; segments lanceolate; hds hemisperical, drooping; receptacle hairy. - Growing among rubbish,...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 35
4 G. purpureum L. St. erect, simple or branched from the base, tomentous; Ivs. lincar-spatulale or obovate-spatulate, downy-canescent beneath, green above ; hds. sessile, crowded, terminal and axillar...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 36
3 C. atriplicifolia L. St. terete; lvs. petiolate, smooth, glaucous beneath, palm-ate-voined, angularly lobed and dentate, the lower subcordate; fls. corymbed, erect; invol. 5-flowered. - N. Y. to Ga....
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 37
4 S. tomentosus Mx. Clothed with soft, cotton-like, nearly persistent tomentum; root lvs. oblong or oblanceolate or ovate, obtuse, tapering to a long, slender petiole, crenate, the upper sessile; hds,...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 38
* Scales of the involucre with a fringed or pectinate appendage..... ..Nos.1,2 * Scales of the involucre merely ciliate, or tipped with a spine......... ...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 39
3 C. horridulum Mx. Lvs. sessile, pinnatifid, acutely cut, spinous hds. invested with an external invol. of about 12 to 20 very spinous bracts; scales sharp-pointed, but unarmed. - (2) Found in meadow...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 40
99. APO'GON, Ell. (Gr. a, privative, n6yov, beard; as destitute of pappus.) Heads radiant; involucre scales ovate, acuminate, about 8, in 2 rows; receptacle naked; achenia glabrous, oval, longitudinal...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 41
105. HIERA'CIUM, Tourn. Hawkweeb. (Gr. , a hawk; supposed to strengthen the vision of birds of prey.) Involucre more or less imbricated, ovoid, many-flowered; scales very unequal; achenia not rostrat...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 42
. ovatus. Cauline lvs. nearly all ovate, on slender petioles. y. CORDATUS. Lvs. cordate, on slender petioles. (Prenanthes cordata Willd.) 6. deltoIdea. Lvs. deltoid, acuminate, acutely denticulate. (...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 43
111. LYGODES'MIA, Don. (Gr. , a wand, , a bond; alluding to its slender habit.) Involucre, flowers, etc, as in Nabalus, except that the pappus is very copious, soft, smooth, whitish, and the; co...
-Suborders And Tribes. Part 44
3 S. oleraceus L. Lvs. sagittate-amplexicaul, runcinate-pinnatiftd, subspinulous, dentate; ped. downy; invol. at length smooth; ach. many-striate.-A sordid looking plant, in waste ground, among rubbis...
-Order LXXI. Lobeliaceae. Lobeliads
Herbs or shrubs with a milky juice, alternate, exstipulate lvs. and scattered fls. Calyx 5-lobed or entire. Cor. monopetalous, irregular, split down to the base on one side. Stamens 5, free from the c...
-Order LXXII. Campanulaceae. Bellworts
Herbs with a milky juice, alternate leaves, and without stipules. Flowers mostly blue, showy. Calyx superior, generally 5-cleft, persistent. Corolla regular, cam-panulate, generally 5-cleft, withering...
-Order LXXIII. Ericaceeae. Heathworts
Plants shrubby or suffruticous, sometimes herbaceous with Lvs. simple, alternate or opposite, mostly evergreen, without stipules. Corolla regular or somewhat irregular, 4 to 5-cleft, the petals rarely...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 2
3 V. stamineum L. Deerberry. Lvs. oval-lanceolato, acute, dull, glaucous beneath; pedicels solitary, axillary, nodding,- cor. campanulate-spreading, segm. acute, oblong; anth. 10, with the long tubes ...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 3
13 V. hirsutum Buckley. Whole plant, with fls. and fruit, densely hirsute; rac. small, axillary and terminal; lvs. deciduous, ovate, entire, mucronate, subsessile, cor. oblong, nearly closed at throat...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 4
. rosmarinifolia. Leaves linear, more revolute, green beneath. 3 K. angustifolia L. Sheep-poison. Lvs. ternate and opposite, elliptical-lanceolate, peliolate, obtuse at each end, smooth ; cor...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 5
Flowers in a terminal, nodding umbel. Anotehrs 2-awned at apex......... No. 1 Flowers in racemes or axillary. (*) ...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 6
14 A. ligustrina Muhl. Pubescent; lvs. deciduous, obovate-lanceolate, acuminate-cuspidate, finely serrulate; fls. somewhat paniculate, in terminal, leafless racemes; caps. 5-angled by the linear valve...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 7
2 A. nudiflora L. Pinxter-bloom. Young branchlets hairy; lvs. oblaneeolate and obovate, downy beneath; clusters naked, appearing with or before the young leaves; cal. very small; cor. slightly viscid,...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 8
R. Canadensis L. A handsome, flowering shrub, in bogs, mountain or plain. Can. to Penn., frequent. Sterns 2-3f high, clothed with a smooth, brown bark, each dividing at top into several erect, floweri...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 9
24. MYLOCA'RIUM, Willd. Buckwheat Tree. (Gr. a mill, a kernel, a fanciful name.) Calyx 5-toothed, minute ; petals 5, obovate, obtuse; stamens 10, very short; pistil with winged angles; capsule...
-Ericaceeae. Heathworts. Part 10
1 C. umbellata Nutt. Prince's Pine. Lvs. cuneate-lanceolate, serrate, in 4s- Gs; umbel 4 to 7-flowered; bracts linear-subulate: sty. immersed in the ovary.- In dry woods, flowering in July. A co...
-Order LXXIV. Aquifoliaceae. Hollyworts
Shrubs or trees, with evergreen, alternate or opposite, simple, coriaceous, exstipu-late leaves. Flowers small, axillary, sometimes dioecious. Sepals 4 to 6, imbricate in bud, very minute. Cor. regula...
-Aquifoliaceae. Hollyworts. Continued
1 N. Canadensis Raf. Canadian Holly. Lvs. deciduous, oval, very entire, smooth, mucronate-pointed; ped. nearly solitary, long; fr. somewhat angular.- A shrub, 4-6f high, with smooth branches, growing ...
-Order LXXVI, Ebenaceae. Ebonads
Trees or shrubs without milky juice and with a heavy wood. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, coriaceous, entire lufloreseenee axillary. Flowers by abortion dioecious seldom perfect. Cal. free, 3 to 6-cle...
-Order LXXVII. Sapotaceae. Soapworts
Trees or shrubs, mostly with a milky juice, and simple, entire leaves. Flowers small, regular, perfect, mostly in axillary clusters. Calyx free, persistent. Corolla hypogynous, short, stamens usually ...
-Order LXXVIII. Primulaceae. Primworts
Herbs low, with the leaves mostly radical or mostly opposite, with the flowers 5-(rarely 4 to 6)-parted, regular and monopetalous, the stamens 5, inserted on the corolla tube and opposite to its lobes...
-Primulaceae. Primworts. Part 2
A. occidentalis Ph. Lvs. oblong-spatulato and ovate, entire, glabrous: scape solitary, or few, puberulent; bracts oval, pedicels slender; cal. angular, segm. acute; cor. lobes long, obruse.- Gravelly...
-Primulaceae. Primworts. Part 3
2 L. Herbemonti Ell. Glabrous, simple; lvs. wlorled in 4s or 5s, sessile, lance-ovate or ovate, obscurely 3-veined, acuminate, glaucous beneath; margin revolute, entire; fls. verticillate, in a termin...
-Order LXXIX. Plantaginaceae. Ribworts
Herbs rarely shrubby, with radical leaves and the flowers in a spike on a scape. Flowers regular, tetramerous. Stamens 4, alternate with the lobes of the corolla and inserted on its tube. Anthers vers...
-Order LXXX. Plumbaginaceae. Leadwokts
Herbs or undershrubs with the leaves alternate or all clustered at the root. Flow ers regular. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, plaited, persistent. Corolla hypocrateriform, of 5 petals united at base, or so...
-Order LXXXI. Lentibulaceae. Butterworts
Herbs small, growing in water or wet places, with showy, bilabiate fls. on scapes. Calyx inferior, of 2 or 3 sepals. Corolla irregular, bilabiate, personate, spurred. Stamens 2, included within the co...
-Lentibulaceae. Butterworts. Continued
5 U. longirostris Ell. Lvs. submersed, dichotomously divided, segm. setaceous, bearing the vescicles; scapes 1 to 2-flowered; upper lip slightly 3-lobed, lower entire; spur linear-subulate, ascending,...
-Order LXXXII. Orobanchaceae. Broomrapes
Herbs fleshy, leafless, growing parasitically upon the roots of other plants. Calyx 4 to 5-toothed, inferior, persistent. Corolla irregular, persistent, imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 4, didynamous...
-Order LXXXIII. Bignoniaceae. Trumpet Flowers
Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, often climbing or twining, with opposite, exstipu-late leaves. Flowers monopetalous, irregular, 5-merous, showy. Stamens 5, 1 or 3 sterile, didynamous, or diandrous. An...
-Order LXXXIV. Pedaliaceae Pedaliads
Herbs mostly strong-scented and glandular-hirsute. Stipules 0. Flowers axillary, solitary, large, monopetalous, didynamous, 5-merous, irregular. Ovary 1 to 2-celled, of 2 carpels. Style 1. Stigma divi...
-Order LXXXV. Loganiaceae
Herbs or shrubs with opposite loaves, with stipules between the petioles, sometimes reduced to an elevated lino or ridge. Flowers 4 or 5-partod, monopetalous, regular, aestivation various. Ovary super...
-Order LXXXVI. Scrophulariaceae. Figworts
Herbs chiefly, without fragrance, the leaves and inflorescence various. Flowers irregular. 5-merous, didynamous or diandrous (rarely pentandrous). Calyx free from the ovary, persistent. Corolla monope...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 2
1 V. thapsus L. Common Mullein. Lvs. decurrent, densely tomentous on both sides; rac. spiked, dense; three of the stamens down}-, two of them smooth.- The tall, dense, club-shaped spikes of the common...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 3
1 M. sempervirens Ort. Glabrous; lvs. cordate-hastate, angular; ped. axillary. 1-flowered; cal. segm. lanceolate, glabrous.-An evergreen climber with large, pale, violet-purple fls. Cor. 1 1/2' long, ...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 4
.laevigatus. Nearly or quite glabrous; lvs. clasping; sterile fil. shorter. 4 P. gracilis Nutt. Glabrous; radical lvs. petiolate, elliptic-oblong or lance-oblong, cauline linear lanceolate, a...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 5
3 M. Jamesii Torr. St. decumbent, rooting at the lower joints; lvs. subentire, roundish-reniform, the lower on long petioles, 5 to 7-veined ; ped. about as long as the leaf; cal. ovate, upper tooth la...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 6
3 G. sphaerocarpa Ell. Glabrous, ascending, branched; lvs. lanceolate-ovate, attenuate 1o the base, sparingly toothed ; ped. scarcely longer than the calyx.-Low grounds, Western States to Ga. Plant a ...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 7
20. AMPHIANTHUS, Torr. (Gr. both or twain, allu-ding to its two-fold inflorescence.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla small, funnel form, limb 4-lobed, lower lobe larger, stamens 2, included; anthers 2...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 8
2 V. Anagallis L. Glabrous erect; lvs. sessile, clasping and subcordate, lanceolate, acutish, entire or serrulate; rac. in opposite axils; caps, orbicular, slightly notched. - , A smooth, fleshy plan...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 9
. reniformis. Lvs. sessile, reniform, entire. (V. reniformis Raf.) 13 V. spicata L. Spiked Speedwell. Erect, tall; lvs. petiolate, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, lower ones obtuse, crenate, uppe...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 10
3-D. quercifolia Benthe Plant glabrous and glaucous, paniculate-branched; Ivs paler beneath, petiolate, lower ample, bipinnatifid, upper oblong lanceolate, pin-natithl or entire; ped. as long as the c...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 11
9 G. tenuifolia Vahl. Paniculate, much-branched; sts. angular: lvs. linear; ped. axillary, longer than the flowers, about equaling the lvs.; caps, globular.- A slender and delicate species, usua...
-Scrophulariaceae. Figworts. Part 12
33. RHINANTHUS, L. Yellow Rattle. (Gr. nose, alluding to the singular appearance of the compressed galea.) Calyx 4-toothed, ventricous; corolla tube cylindrical, as long as the calyx, limb rin...
-Order LXXXVII. Acanthaceae Acanthads
Herbs or shrubs with opposite, simple leaves and regular, bracted flowers. Calyx pentamerous, equal or unequal, imbricated in the bud. Corolla 5-merous, tubular below, limb more or less bilabiate, con...
-Acanthaceae Acanthads. Continued
. hybridus. Low, decumbent, very hirsute.-Near Savannah (Feay). Stems 2 to 4' long, with short internodes. Fls. sometimes shortened. 3 D. noctiflorus Nees.- Cal. segm. linear-lanceolate, thri...
-Order LXXXVIII. Verbenaceae. Vervains
Herbs (or generally shrubs and trees) with opposite, exstipulate leaves. Flowers with a bilabiate or more or less irregular monapetalous corolla. Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely equal, sometimes only 2....
-Verbenaceae. Vervains. Continued
11 V. sororia Don ? Prostrate, somewhat hairy; Ivs. multifid, with narrow, ciliate segments; spikes pedunculate, short; bracts half as long as the slender calyx; cor. small, lobes emarginate.-Garden V...
-Order LXXXIX. Labiatae. Labiate Plants
Herbs with square stems and opposite, aromatic, exstipulate leaves. Flowers Axillary, in verticillasters, sometimes as if spiked or in heads. Corolla labiate (rarely regular), upper lip 2-cleft or ...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 2
5. TRICHOSTEM'MA, L. Blue Curls. (Gr. hair, stamen ; for its long, hair-like filaments.) Calyx very oblique, veiny, unequally 5-toothed, lower lip of 2 short teeth, upper twice as long, of 3 t...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 3
2 L. Europaeus L. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate or lance ovate, petiolate. acute, sinuate-toothed or lobed, the lower incised; calyx teeth 5, acuminate-spinescent, longer than the smooth achenia.-A plant in ...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 4
12. HYSSO'PUS, L. Hyssop. (Hebrew ezeb ; Arabic uzzof; English hyssop.) Calyx tubular, 15-striate, equally 5-toothed, upper lip of the corolla erect, flat, emarginate, lower lip 3-parted, the middle s...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 5
13 P. montanum Mx. Lvs. lanceolate, serrate, acute, the lower rounded at base, glabrous as well as the stem; hds. globous, subtended by many bracts, terminal or sessile at the upper nodes; bracts vill...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 6
2 C. Nepeta Link. Villous with soft, whitish hairs, much branched below; lvs. small, broad-ovate, obtuse, subserrate, petiolate; cymes lew-flowered in the upper axils, becoming somewhat raeemed; cal. ...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 7
5 S. obovata Ell. Erect; lvs. broadly obovate, entire, sinuate, narrowed to a long tapering base, the floral ovate, shorter than the calyx; verticils 6-flowered, remote, in a simple raceme; cal. upper...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 8
Cor. pale yellow, with brown spots, upper lip villous at the apex. Bracts large, yellow and red. Sept.-Medicinal 4 M. didyma L. St. branched, acutely 4-angled; lvs. broadly ovate, acuminate, somewh...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 9
27. CEDRONEL'LA, Mnch. (Gr. oil of cedar; from the fragrance.) Calyx subcampanulate, 5-toothcd; corolla tube exserted, throat dilated, upper lip straight, flattish, emarginate or cleft, lower 3...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 10
8 S. nervosa Ph. Slender, erect, subsimple, stoloniferous; lvs. broad-ovate, sub-cordate, crenate-serrate, sessile, glabrous, 3-5-veined, lower roundish-ovate, upper ovate and lance-ovate, slightly pe...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 11
2 L. purpureum L. Lower lvs. roundish, the floral ovate, all crenate, petiolate, the petioles longer than the calyxes; cor.tube straight; anth. hairy.- Waste grounds, Penn., rare. Eur. ...
-Labiatae. Labiate Plants. Part 12
. debilis. Weak, much branched, from a decumbent base.-Ga., La, 3 S. palustris L. St. stout, erect, hispid, with retrorse bristles; lvs. many, hispid, hoary beneath, on short petioles, oblong...
-Order XC. Borraginaceae. Borrageworts
Herbs (shrubs or trees), with round stems and branches, not aromatic. Leaves alternate, generally rough, with stiff hairs. Stipules none. Flowers seldom yellow, generally in a coiled (scorpoid) inflor...
-Order XC. Borraginaceae. Borrageworts. Part 2
6. SYM'PHYTUM, Tourn. Comfrey. (Gr. a joining or healing; from its reputation for healing wounds.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla tuhular-campanulate, orifice closed with 5, subulate scales, converging in...
-Order XC. Borraginaceae. Borrageworts. Part 3
5 L. canescens Lehmann. PUCCOON. Erect, subsimple, softly villous; lvs. oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse, silky-canescent above, villous beneath; fls. axillary ; lube of the cor. thrice as long as the ...
-Order XC. Borraginaceae. Borrageworts. Part 4
12. ECHINOSPER'MUM, Swartz. Burr-seed. (Gr the sea-urchin, seed; from the character.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla hypoerateriform, orifice closed with concave scales ; achenia 4, erect, bearing 1 ...
-Order XCI. Hydrophyllaceae. Hydrophylls
Herbs mostly, with alternate lobed leaves and regular bluish flowers. Calyx 5-cleft, usually with appendages at the clefts, persistent, free. Corolla 5-lobed, often with 10 honey scales or furrows nea...
-Order XCI. Hydrophyllaceae. Hydrophylls. Continued
E. Nyctelaea L. Ascending, branching, with few, scattered hairs; lvs. petiolate, upper ones alternate, segments 9 to 11, linear-oblong, nearly distinct, sparingly dentate; ped. 1-flowered, opposite th...
-Order XCII. Polemoniaceae. Phloxworts
Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and 5-parted, regular, showy flowers. Corolla monopetalous, the lobes convolute, rarely imbricate in asstivation. Stamens 5, adherent to the corolla tube, and a...
-Order XCII. Polemoniaceae. Phloxworts. Continued
8 P. divaricata L. Low, diffuse, pubescent; lvs. lanceolate, ovate or oblong, acutish; panicle corymbous, loose; cal. roughish-puberulent, segm. linear-subulate ; cor. lobes emarginate at the end.- ...
-Order XCIII. Convolvulaceae. Bindweeds
Chiefly twining or trailing herbs, sometimes parisitie, sometimes shrubby. Leaves (or scales when leafless) alternate. Flowers regular, pentamerous and 5-androus. Sepals imbricated. Corolla monopetalo...
-Order XCIII. Convolvulaceae. Bindweeds. Part 2
* Flowers capitate, involucreate, small, blue. Sepals hairy................................... No.1 * Flowers separate. - Sepals bristly cilliate, capsules so...
-Order XCIII. Convolvulaceae. Bindweeds. Part 3
1 C. spithamaeus Br. St. erect or assurgent; lvs. oblong-lanceolate, subcordate, hoary-pubescent; ped. 1-flowered, about as long as the leaves.- An erect, downy species, 8-10' (a span) high, found in...
-Order XCIII. Convolvulaceae. Bindweeds. Part 4
4 C. arvensis (Beyrich) . pentagona Eng. Low; fls. small, 5-parted, pedi-celed, in compound or branching clusters; cal. angular, lobes suborbieular, obtuse, thin and shining, as long as, or long...
-Order XCIV. Solanaceae. Nightshades
Plants herbaceous, rarely shrubby, with a colorless juice and alternate leaves. Flowers mostly regular, often extra-axillary, 5-parted, on bractless pedicels. Corolla valvate or plicate in the bud and...
-Order XCIV. Solanaceae. Nightshades. Part 2
7 S. sempervirens Dun. Shrubby, twining and climbing; branches herbaceous; lvs. entire, lance-ovate or elliptic, obliquely cordate, obtuse, with a blunt cusp, very smooth and shining; panicles termina...
-Order XCIV. Solanaceae. Nightshades. Part 3
3 P. Alkekengi L. Strawberry Tomato. St. subsimple, pubescent; lvs. deltoid-ovate, acuminate, repand; cor. not spotted; cal. in fr. ovoid-globous. colored; stam. yellow. - Gardens. Plant less branche...
-Order XCIV. Solanaceae. Nightshades. Part 4
1 N. aristata Sweet. Puberulent, pale-green; sts. filiform, very branching: lvs. narrowly linear, acute; fls. pedunculate, opposite the leaves, solitary; cal. cam-panulate, seg. linear-subulate, acute...
-Order XCV. Gentianaceae. Gentianworts
Herbs smooth, with a colorless, bitter juice, with entire, exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, mostly centrifugal in inflorescence and convolute in the bud. Calyx per-iistent; corolla withering, its ...
-Order XCV. Gentianaceae. Gentianworts. Part 2
10 S. brachiata Ell. St. slender, eubquadrangular, internodes 2 - 4 times longer than the leaves; branches opposite, suberect; lvs, linear and lance-linear, lower ones ovate, all acutish, sessile; pan...
-Order XCV. Gentianaceae. Gentianworts. Part 3
6 G. alba Muhl. (Gray). Very smooth; st. stout, erect; fls. densely clustered at the summit, solitary in one or two axils; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, or lanceolate, half clasping at the broad base, gradua...
-Order XCV. Gentianaceae. Gentianworts. Part 4
7. OBOLA'RIA, L. Pennywort. (Gr, a small coin; from the form of the leaves.) Calyx of 2 cuneate-oblong sepals or bracts; corolla tubular-campanulate, marescent, 4-cleft, lobes entire or crenu-late; s...
-Order XCVI. Apocynaceae. Dog-Banes
Plant with an acrid, milky juice, entire, exstipulatc, mostly opposite leaves. Flowers 5-parted, regular, the calyx persistent, the corolla twisted in aestivation. Stamens 5, with distinct filaments, ...
-Order XCVII. Asclepiadaceae. Asclepiads
Plants (chiefly herbs in the United States) with a milky juice, often twining. Leaves opposite (rarely whorled or scattered), without stipules, entire. Flowers generally umbellate, 5-parted, regula...
-Order XCVII. Asclepiadaceae. Asclepiads. Part 2
6. A variegata L St. simple, erect, smoothish; lvs. ovate or oval, abrupt at each end, mucronate, glabrous, glaucous beneath; ped. lateral or terminal, one-third as long as the leaves, umbellate, many...
-Order XCVII. Asclepiadaceae. Asclepiads. Part 3
17 A. paupercula Mx. St. virgate, erect, glabrous; lvs. linear and linear-oblong, margins narrowly revolute, both sides glabrous, tapering into a short petiole; ped. 1 or 2 at tap of the stem, umbel p...
-Order XCVII. Asclepiadaceae. Asclepiads. Part 4
6. SENTE'RA, Reich. Calyx of 5 lanceolate, acute sepals; corolla subrotate, 5-parted, acute, glabrous; crown segm. 5, erect, flattishh, re-tuse, adnate to the base of the sessile anthers; pollinia ovo...
-Order XCVIIL - Jasminaceae. Jasminworts
Shrubs often twining, with opposite or alternate, mostly compound leaves. Calyx and corolla 5 to 8-parted, the latter imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 2, in the tube of the corolla. Ovary free, 2-ce...
-Order XCIX. Oleaceae. Olives
Trees and shrubs with opposite, simple, sometimes pinnate-leaves, with flowers 4-parted, regular, rarely apetalous, the corolla valvate in the bud. Stamens 2 to 4, mostly 2, and fewer than the corolla...
-Order XCIX. Oleaceae. Olives. Continued
1 S. vulgaris L. Common Lilac. - Lvs. cordate-ovate, entire, glabrous, green both sides; inflorescence thyreoid; limb of cor. subconcave. - There are many varieties in this beautiful shrub. a. Corolla...
-Order C. Aristolochiaceae. Birthworts
Low herbs or climbing shrubs, with alternate leaves and perfect flowers. Perianth tube adherent to the ovary, brown or dull, valvate in the bud. Stamens 6 to 12, epigynous and adherent to the base of ...
-Order CI. Nyctaginaceae. Marvelworts
Herbs (shrubs or trees) with tumid joints, entire and opposite leaves. Flowers surrounded with an involucre (calyx-like when the flower is solitary). Calyx a delicate, colored, funnel-form or tubular ...
-Order Ch. Polygonaceae. Sorrelworts
Herbs, rarely shrubs, with alternate leaves and mostly sheathing stipules (ochre) surrounding the stem above each tumid joint. Flowers mostly perfect. Perianth or calyx 3 to 6-cleft, mostly colo...
-Order Ch. Polygonaceae. Sorrelworts. Part 2
3 R. Hydrolapathum Hudson. . Americana Gray. Great Water Dock. Lvs. lanceolate, acuminate, lower lance-oblong, very long, upper minutely undu-late-crenulate, all acute or attenuate at base, pet...
-Order Ch. Polygonaceae. Sorrelworts. Part 3
6. POLYGONEL'LA, Mx. (Lat. diminutive, implying a little or dwarf Polygonum.) Calyx 5-scpalcd, colored, persistent and withering, erect-spreading, or at length the 3 inner sepals increasing and conni-...
-Order Ch. Polygonaceae. Sorrelworts. Part 4
6 P. hydropiperoides Mx. Mild Water-pepper. St. smooth; sheaths hairy, bristly-ciliate, long and narrow; lvs. linear-lanceolate, tapering to each end, slightly appressed-hairy (not acrid); spikes 2 or...
-Order Ch. Polygonaceae. Sorrelworts. Part 5
17 P. convolvulus L. Knot-Bindweed. St. prostrate or climbing, twining, roughish; sheatlis naked; lvs. hastate, acuminate; fls. in axiilary fasicles or interrupted racemes; cal. obtusely keeled; ach. ...
-Order CIII. Phytolaccaceae. Pokeworts
Herbs with alternate, entire leaves and perfect, 5-parted, hypogynous flowers. Calyx free. Stamens 5 to 30, alternate with the sepals when of the same number. Ovary usually compound, of several ...
-Order CIV. Basellaceae
Herbs glabrous, often twining and climbing, with alternate leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, with a double, imbricated calyx often colored. Stamens perigynous. Otherwise as in Chenopodiaceae. Fig. 363...
-Order CV. Chenopodiaceae. Chenopods Or Goose-Foots
Herbs chiefly weed-like and homely, more or less fleshy, with alternate, exstipu-late leaves. Bracts not scarious. Flowers minute, greenish, regular. Calyx imbricated in bud. Stamens perigynous, as ma...
-Order CV. Chenopodiaceae. Chenopods Or Goose-Foots. Part 2
4 C. urbicum L. . rhombifolium. Erect, angled, branched; lvs. petiolate, ascending or erect, rhombic-triangular, acute, sinute-toothed, with long, acute teeth, thin, green, the highest lance-lin...
-Order CV. Chenopodiaceae. Chenopods Or Goose-Foots. Part 3
3 B. Bonus-Henricus Reiehenb. Good King Henry. Plant mealy, ascending, subsimple; lvs. triangular-hastate, entire or sinuate, green; glomerules forming a terminal, leafless spike, not fleshy in fruit;...
-Order CV. Chenopodiaceae. Chenopods Or Goose-Foots. Part 4
C. maritima Moq. Branches diffuse, prostrate or erect; lvs. long, linear, semi-terete, upper shorter; fls. in sessile axillary glomerules, 2 or 3 together; fruit ca). inflated; seed shining. - Salt m...
-Order CVI. Amarantaceae. Amaranths
Herbs weed-like with opposite or alternate leaves, and a bracteate, spiked or capitate inflorescence. Flowers generally with an imbricated involucre of 3 dry, scarious bracts. Sepals 3 to 5 (rarely bu...
-Order CVI. Amarantaceae. Amaranths. Continued
Spines 2 in each axil. Bracts not longer than the 5 sepals................................ No. 1 Spines none. - Bracts longer than the 3 to 5 - ...
-Order Cvh. Lauraceae. Laurels
Trees and shrubs aromatic, mostly with alternate, simple, punctate leaves. Flowers with a colored perianth of 4 to 6 slightly united, strongly imbricated sepals. Anthers 2 or 4-celled, opening upwa...
-Order CVIII. Loranthaceae. Loranths
Shrubby plants parasitic on trees, with thick, opposite, exstipulate leaves. Flowers mostly declinous, an adherent calyx of 4 to 8 lobes, with stamens of the same number, opposite the calyx lobes. Ova...
-Order CIX. Santalaceae. Sandalworts
Trees shrubs and herbs, with alternate, undivided leaves, with the calyx tube adherent to the ovary, limb 4 to 5-cleft, valvate in aestivation, the stamens as many as the sepals, inserted at their bas...
-Order CX. Thymelaceae. Daphnads
Shrubs with a very tough, acrid bark, entire leaves and perfect flowers, with the calx tubular, colored, the limb 4 (4 or 5)-parted, regular, the tube bearing the stamens as many or usually twice as m...
-Order CXI. ElaeAgnaceae. Oleasters
Shrubs or trees usually with the leaves covered with a silvery scurf, entire-flowers mostly dioecious, the calyx free, entire, persistent, becoming in fruit pulpy and berry-like, inclosing the 1-celle...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts
Herbs, shrubs or trees, usually with a milky, acrid juice. Flowers diclinous, some-times enclosed in a cup-shaped involucre. Calyx inferior, sometimes wanting. Cor-olla scale-like or colored, often wa...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts. Part 2
8 E. mercurialina Mx. Sts. slender, weak, simply trichotomous; lvs. opposite or ternately whorled, nearly sessile, oval, entire; ped. terminal, solitary, bearing a single involucre. - Near Knoxville...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts. Part 3
18 E. heterophylla Mx. (Engelm.) St. thick, green, glabrous, much branched, tall; lvs. ovate, or sinuate-toothed, or panduriform, the highest often lance-linear, all on slender petioles and scattered;...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts. Part 4
1 S. sylvatica L. St. herbaceous or shrubby at base; lvs. oval-lanceolate, cuneate at the subsessile base, obtuse at apex, serrulate; spike solitary, simple, with large, cup-sliaped glands among the y...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts. Part 5
6. RIC'INUS, Tourn. Castor Oil Plant. (Lat. ricinus, a bug; from the resemblance of the seeds.) Flowers 8 , apetalous; calyx 3 to 5-parted, valvate in the bud; stamens , with irregularly unit...
-Order CXII. Euphorbiaceae. Spurgeworts. Part 6
9. PHYLLAN'THUS, L. (Gr. ; the leaves of the original species arc apparently florifcrous.) Flowers 8 . - Calyx persistent, with 6 spreading, colored segments; stamens 3, very short, fil...
-Order CXIII. Ulmaceae. Elmworts
Trees with a colorless juice, alternate, deciduous leaves and stipules, with the flowers perfect, or abortively polygamous, in loose clusters, never in aments. Calyx subcampanulate, bearing the stamen...
-Order CXIV. Artocarpaceae. Artocarps
Trees or shrubs with a milky acrid or noxious juice, with largo deciduous stipules. Fowers or 8, collected into dense heads or amonts, naked or with a lobed calyx. Ovary free, 1 (rarely ...
-Order CXV. Urticaceae. Nettleworts
Herbs (and some tropical shrubs) with a watery juice, a tough, fibrous bark. Leaves stipulate, often opposite, flowers small, monoecious or dioecious, in panicles, racemes, or dense clusters, furni...
-Order CXV. Urticaceae. Nettleworts. Continued
Calyx of 3 or 4 equal sepals; stamens 3 or 4. Calyx of 3 oblong, unequal sepals; stamens rudiments 3, cucullate opposite the sepals; achenium roughened, opaque, ovate, erect, nearly nak...
-Order CXVI. Empetraceae. Crowberries
Shrubs low, evergreen, heathlike, with crowded, narrow leaves and small, diclinous flowers. Calyx of 4 to 6, hypogynous, persistent, imbricated scales, the inner often colored. Stamens 2 or 3, pollen ...
-Order CXVII. Platanaceae. Sycamores
Trees with a watery juice, alternate palmate leaves and sheathing, scarious stipules. Flowers monoecious, in globular aments, destitute of both calyx and corolla. Sterile. - Stamens single, with only ...
-Order CXVIII. Juglandaceae. Walnut
Trees with alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves and monoecious flowers. Sterile flowers in aments, with an irregular perianth. Fertile, solitary or clustered. Calyx regular, 3 to 5-lobed, tube adhe...
-Order CXIX. Cupultferae. Mastworts
Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, straight-veined, with deciduous stipules. Flowers monoecious, the sterile in aments which are racemed or capitate. Calyx scale-like or regular, with 5 to 2...
-Order CXIX. Cupultferae. Mastworts. Part 2
8 Q. triloba Mx. Downy Black Oak. Lvs. oblong-cuneiform, acute at the base, on very short petioles, 3-lobed at the end, rusty-tomentous beneath, lobes mu-cronate with setaceous awns, middle one longer...
-Order CXIX. Cupultferae. Mastworts. Part 3
18 Q. macrocarpa Mx. (Fig. 140, 194.) Lvs. deeply and lyrately sinuate-lobed (most deeply in the middle), lobes obtuse and repand, upper dilated; acorn very large, cup very deep, composed of distinctl...
-Order CXIX. Cupultferae. Mastworts. Part 4
Flowers 2, within a 4-lobed, prickly involucre composed of united linear scales; calyx with 5 to 6 minute lobes; ovary 3 celled, 6-ovuled; styles 3; nut 1-seeded, acutely 3-angled, enclosed within ...
-Order CXX. Betulaceae. Birchworts
Trees or shrubs with deciduous stipules. Lark separating into thin layers. Leaves alternate, simple, with the veinlets running straight to the margin. Flowers monoecious, amentaceous, mostly naked, 3 ...
-Order CXXI. Myricaceae. Galeworts
Shrubs with alternate, resinous-dotted, often fragrant leaves, with the flowers monoecious or dioecious, achlamydeous, both kinds in scaly aments. Stamens 2 to 8. Ovary 1-celled, with 1 erect...
-Order CXXII - Salicaceae. Willoworts
Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple leaves and deciduous or persistent stipules. Flowers , both kinds in aments, one under each bract of the anient. Calyx none or cup-form and entire. Ovary...
-Order CXXII - Salicaceae. Willoworts. Part 2
Shrub or small tree, 4 to 15f high, with long, slender, smooth, purple or yellowish green twigs, tough and elastic, used in basket making. (S. rosmarini-folia Ph.) . fuscata. Lvs. obovate-lanceo...
-Order CXXII - Salicaceae. Willoworts. Part 3
20 S. nigra Marshall. Black Willow. Lvs. lanceolate and lance-linear, attenuate at each end, serrulate, smooth and green on both sides, petiole and midvein abovetomentous; stip. dentate, caducous; ame...
-Order CXXII - Salicaceae. Willoworts. Part 4
3 P. tremuloides Mx. American Aspen. Lvs. orbicular-cordate, abruptly acuminate, dentate-serrate, pubescent at the margin; bracts of the ament 3 or 4-cleft, margin silky-fringed. - Abundant in N. Eng....
-Order CXXIII. Saururaceae. Saururads
Herbs with jointed stems, alternate, entire leaves furnished with stipules. Flowers in spikes, perfect, naked, having neither corolla nor calyx. Stamens definite. Ovaries 3 to 5, more or less united. ...
-Order CXXIV, Callitrichaceae. Starwort
Herbs aquatic, small, with opposite, simple, entire leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, very minute, polygamous, achlamydeous, with 2 colored bracts. Stamen 1, rarely 2; filament slender; anthers 1-ce...
-Order CXXV. Podostemiaceae. Threadfoots
Herbs aquatic with the habit of seaweeds, with alternate, dissected leaves, with flowers minute, perfect, naked or with 3 sepals, stamens 1 or many, hypogynous. Ovary compound, 2 to 3-celled, with ...
-Order CXXVI. Ceratophyllaceae. Hornworts
Herbs aquatic, with verticillate, dichotomously dissected leaves. Flowers mo. ncecious, sessile, axillary, minute, with neither corolla nor calyx. Involucre 8 to 12cleft. Anthers (12 to 24) sessile...
-Order CXXVII. Coniferae. Conifers
Trees or shrubs mostly evergreen, abounding with ft resinous juice. Leaves scat-tered or Fascicled, acerous, linear or lanceolate, parallel-veined. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, achlamydeous, in am...
-Order CXXVII. Coniferae. Conifers. Part 2
. ? paupera. Bark smoother than the pines in general, the branches resembling those of the beech; lvs. short, (3 to 4') and thinly scattered; cones smaller than a hen's egg, with minute, straigh...
-Order CXXVII. Coniferae. Conifers. Part 3
6 A. excelsa DC. Norway Spruce. Branches pendulous; lvs. elongated, somewhat 2-ranked; cones long, cylindrical, pendulous; scales broad, with a slightly projecting and 2-toothed apex. - Parks and shru...
-Order CXXVII. Coniferae. Conifers. Part 4
7. JUNIP'ERUS, L. Juniper. (Celtic, juneprus, rough or rude.) Flowers , rarely 8. - Anient ovate; scales verticillate, peltate, each with 4 to 7 anther cells at base. Ament globo...
-Order CXXVIII. Taxaceae. Yews
Trees or shrubs, with narrow, parallel-veined or broad fork-veined leaves, and the flowers diclinous, achlamydeous, surrounded with imbricated bracts. Flowers several together, each consisting of one...
-Order CXXIX. Cycadaceae. Cycades
Trees of low stature, simple trunks with the internodes undeveloped and the surface scarred with the fallen leaves which were pinnate, parallel-veined, circinate. Flowers dioecious, in cones, anther...
-Order CXXX. Palmaceae. Palms
Trees or shrubs chiefly with unbranched trunks growing by the terminal bud. Leaves large, plaited, on sheathing petioles, collected in one terminal cluster. Flowers perfect or polygamous, on a branchi...
-Order CXXXI. Araceae. Aroids
Herbs with a creeping rhizome or corm, and an acrid or pungent juice, with the leaves simple or compound, often veiny, and the flowers mostly diclinous and naked. Inflorescence a spadix, dense-flowere...
-Order CXXXI. Araceae. Aroids. Continued
3. RICHAR'DIA, Kth. Egyptian Calla. Spathe involute at base, spreading, marescent; spadix covered with flowers, fertile below, stam-inate above; anthers , free, sessile, 2-celled, on a broad co...
-Order CXXXII. Lemnaceae. Duckmeats
Herbs minute, stemless, floating free upon the water, and consisting of a leaf-like frond, or a tuft of leaves, with one or more fibrous roots. Flowers bursting from the substance of the frond, or axi...
-Order CXXXIII. Typhaceae. Typhads
Herbs growing in marshes and ditches, with rigid, ensiform, sessile leaves. Flowers monoecious, arranged on a spadix or in heads, with no spathe. Perianth of a few scales, or a tuft of hairs, or 0. St...
-Order CXXXIV. Naiadaceae. Naiads
Water plants with jointed stems, and sheathing stipules, or sheathing petioles. Flowers perfect or diclinous, naked or with a 2 to 4-parted perianth. Stamens definite. Ovaries free, sessile, 1-ovuled....
-Order CXXXIV. Naiadaceae. Naiads. Continued
2 P. heterophyllus Schreb. Floating lvs. lanceolate or oblong, 5 to 7-veined. tapering to the petioles, scarcely coriaceous, subinersed lvs. long, narrowly linear, membranous, acute, 1-veined, slightl...
-Order CXXXV. Alismaceae. Water Plantains
Marsh herbs, with parallel-veined, petiolate leaves and brandling peduncles. Flowers perfect or monoecious, with a regular double perianth. Sepals 3, green; petals 3, colored or green; stamens hypogyn...
-Order CXXXV. Alismaceae. Water Plantains. Continued
2 S. heterophylla Ph. Lvs. smooth, linear-lanceolate, rarely some of them elliptical and sagittate; scape simple, weak; bracts roundish, obtuse; upper fls. sterile, on long pedicels, the lowest whorl ...
-Order CXXXVI. Hydrocharidaceae. Frogbits
Aquatic herbs with parallel-veined leaves and diclinous fls. on a slender-stalked spadix. Perianth regular, 3 to 6-parted, the inner segments petaloid. Stamens 3 to 12. Ovary adherent to the perianth,...
-Order CXXXVII. Burmanniaceae
Small annual herbs with slender, scaly or naked stems and scale-like, tufted leaves. Flowers perfect, with a tubular, 6-toothed perianth adherent to the ovary. Stamens 3, opposite the smaller te...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids
Herbs perennial, with fleshy roots, simple, entire, parallel veined leaves. Flowers very irregular, with an adherent, ringent perianth of 6 parts. Sepals 3, usually colored, odd one uppermost by the t...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 2
O. spectabilis L. Lvs. 2, nearly as long as the scape; lip obovate, undivided, crenate, retuse; segments of the perianth straight, the lateral ones longer; spur clavate, shorter than the ovary, bracts...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 3
6 P. dilatata Lindl. St. slender; lvs. lance-linear and linear, acute; spike many-flowered, virgate; bracts lance-linear, about as long as the flowers; upper sepal ovate, obtuse, the lateral narrower ...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 4
16 P. peramna Gray. St. tall, leafy; lvs. lanceolate and lance-linear; bracts nearly equaling the ovary; sep. roundish-ovate; lateral petals denticulate; lip 3-parted, divisions cuneiform, denta...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 5
2 C. odontorhiza Nutt. Lip undivided, oval, obtuse, crenulate, spotted; spur none; capsule oblong or subglobous. - A singular plant, with no leaves or green herbage, inhabiting old woods, Can. to Car....
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 6
2 L. convallarioides Hook. Lvs. roundish-ovate; rac. few-flowered, loose, pubescent; sep. ovate-lanceolate; lip. cuneate-spatulate, twice as long as the sepals, 2-toothed at base, with 2 roundish lobe...
-Order CXXXVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchids. Part 7
16. CALOPO'GON, Brown. Grass Pink. (Gr. beautiful, beard; in allusion to the bearded lip.) Sepals and petals similar, distinct; lip on the upper side of the flowers (the ovary not twisted as ...
-Order CXXXIX. Marantaceae. Arroworts
Herbs with a creeping rhizome, sheathing petioles, and ample leaves, with parallel veins diverging from the midvein. Fls. with spathaceous bracts. Perianth adherent, irregular, of 3 circles, each of 3...
-Order CXL. Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllids
Herbs perennial, chiefly bulbous, with linear leaves not scurfy nor woolly. Flowers showy, mostly regular and on scapes, with an adherent, 6-parted perianth. Stamens 6, anthers introrse. Ovary 3-celle...
-Order CXL. Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllids. Continued
4. AGA'VE, L. (Gr. admirable.) Perianth tubular-funnel-form, adherent to the ovary, 6-parted; stamens 6, exserted; anthers linear, soon versatile; capsule coriaceous, obtusely triangular, 3-celled, m...
-Order CXLI. Bromeliaceae. Bromeliads
Herbs, chiefly epiphytic, with persistent, often scurfy leaves, channeled and sheathing. Calyx 3-parted or 3-toothed, often green. Corolla 3-petaled, distinct, imbricated, colored. Stamens 6, perigyno...
-Order CXLII. HaeModoraceae. Bloodworts
Herbs perennial, with fibrous roots, equitant or rosulate leaves, and perfect flowers. Perianth regular, 6-parted, scurfy or woolly outside, more or less adherent. Stamens 6, or 3 and opposite the pet...
-Order CXLIII. Iridaceae. Irids
Herbs with corms, bulbs or rhizomes, equitant, 2-ranked leaves and spathaceous bracts. Perianth tube adherent to the ovary, segments in 2 sets, often unequal and convolute in bud. Stamens 3, alternate...
-Order CXLIII. Iridaceae. Irids. Continued
2. NEMAS'TYLIS, Nutt. (Gr thread, style.) Spathe 2-leaved; perianth segments distinct down to the top of the ovary, the sepals spreading, larger than the ascending, concave petals; stamens 3, fi...
-Order CXLIV. Dioscoreaceae. Yam Roots
Plants shrubby, twining, arising from the tuberous rhizomes, with broad net-veined leaves. Flowers dioecious, regular, hexandrous, tube adherent, limb 6-partcd. Ovary 3-celled, 3 to 6-ovuled, 3-styled...
-Order CXLV. Smilaceae. Sarsaparillas
Herbs or shrubs, often climbing. Leaves reticulate-veined. Flowers dioecious, or monoecious. Perianth free from the ovary, 6-parted, regular. Stamens 6, in-' serted into the base of the segments. Anth...
-Order CXLVI. Roxburghiaceae
Shrubby plants with twining or creeping stems and many-veined, netted leaves. Flowers perfect with a 4-parted, petaloid, persistent perianth. Stamens 4, on the lowest base of the segments. Ovary free,...
-Order CXLVII. Trilliaceae. Trilliads
Herbs with simple stems, tuberous roots and verticillate, net-veined leaves. Flowers terminal, 1 or few, perfect, mostly 3-parted. Calyx herbaceous, corolla more or less colored. Stamens 6 to 10. Ovar...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts
Herbs with bulbous or tuberous stems, parallel-veined, sessile leaves, flowers perfect, regular, generally largo and richly colored, perianth 6 (rarely 4)-parted, uniformly colored, free from the ovar...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 2
Flowers white, nodding. Plants cultivated......................................................... Nos. 8, 9 Flowers orange-colored or red, spot...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 3
. recurvifolia. Somewhat caulescent; lvs. lance-linear or linear, recurved, rarely somewhat filamentous. (Y. recurvifolia Salisb. ?) 2 Y. gloriosa L. Caulescent, caudex some 3f high; lvs. ere...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 4
3 A. stellatum Nutt. Lvs. radical, linear, about equaling the nearly terete scape; umbel many-flowered, erect (when in flower, nodding before); petals oblong-ovate, acute, equaling the stamens; filam....
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 5
12. MUSCA'RI, Tourn. Grape Hyacinth. Perianth tube ventricous, ovoid or campanulate, throat constricted, limb of 0 very short, obtuse, spreading segments, sometimes with a crown. Otherwise as in Hyaci...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 6
. PUBESCENS. Lvs. pubescent beneath, glaucous, slightly clasping; st. 1 to 2f high; fls. as short as the peduncles. - Common in N. England. . giganteum. Tall, green and glabrous throughout...
-Order CXLVIII. Liliaceae. Lilyworts. Part 7
22. STREPT0 PUS, Mx. Twist-foot. (Gr. to turn, foot; a twisted footstalk or peduncle.) Perianth 6-parted, campanulate; segments with a nectariferous pore at the base of each; anthers longer tha...
-Order CXLIX. Melanthaceae. Melanths
Herbs perennial, sometimes bulbous, often poisonous, with parallel-veined leaves, perianth double, regular, persistent, of 6 consimilar, green or colored segments. stamens 6, with extrorse anthers, 3 ...
-Order CXLIX. Melanthaceae. Melanths. Part 2
3 V. parviflorum. Mx. Lvs. mostly radical, oval and lance-oval, glabrous, scarcely plicate, contracted at base into winged petioles; stem scape-like, terete, bracted- panicle elongated, very loose, wi...
-Order CXLIX. Melanthaceae. Melanths. Part 3
C. luteum Gray. Blazing Star. Low grounds, Can. and U. S. St. 12 to 30' high, furrowed. Radical lvs. 3 to 5' by 6 to 12, in a sort of whorl. Fls. small, very numerous, in long, terminal, spicate race...
-Order CL. Pontederiaceae. Pontederiads
Plants aquatic, with the leaves parallel'veined, mostly dilated at base, Fls. spath-aceous. Perianth tubular, colored, 6-parted, often irregular and circinate after flowering. Stamens 3 or 6, unequal ...
-Order CLI. Juncaceae. Rushes
Plants herbaceous, generally grass-like, often leafless, with small, dry, green flowers. Perianth more or less glume-like, regular, 6-leaved, in 2 series (sepals and petals.) Stamens 6, rarely 3, hypo...
-Order CLI. Juncaceae. Rushes. Part 2
4 J. setacens Rostkow. Scape filiform, striate; umbel lateral, subsimple, few-flowered; ped. compressed, several flowered; perianth segments very acute. - Swamps, Penn. to Fla., growing in tufts, abou...
-Order CLI. Juncaceae. Rushes. Part 3
. biflorus. Stouter (2f high); hds. very numerous, mostly 2 or 3-flowercd, nearly black. - South, common. 16 J. repens Mx. Low, tufted with creeping stolons; lvs. subulate-linear, fascicled a...
-Order CLII. Commelynaceae. Spiderworts
Herbs with flat, narrow leaves which are usually sheathing at base. Perianth of 2 series, the outer of 3 herbaceous sepals, the inner of 3 colored petals. Stamens 6, some of them usually deforme...
-Order CLIII. Xyeidageae. Xyrids
Herbs sedge-like, with equitant leaves and a scape bearing a head of flowers. Perianth 6-parted, in 2 series, sepals 3, glumaceous, petals 3, unguiculate. Stamens 3, with extrorse anthers, and inserte...
-Order CLIV. Eriocaulonaceae. Pipeworts
Herbs perennial, aquatic, with linear, spongy, cellular leaves, sheathing at base. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in a dense head. Perianth 2 to 6-parted or wanting. Stamens 6, some of them generall...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges
Herbs grass-like or rush-like, with fibrous roots and solid culms. Leaves mostly linear, channeled, arising from entire or tubular sheaths. Flowers spiked, perfect or diclinous, one in the axil of eac...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 2
7 C. erythrorhizos Muhl. Culm 2 - 3f high, obtusely triquetrous, longer than the leaves; umbel compound; rays 5 - 9, 3 - 4 long, each with 3 - 1 sessile clusters; sheaths entire; spikelets very numero...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 3
20 C. Grayii Torr. Culm 8 - 12' high, filiform, obtusely triangular, erect, tuberous at base; lvs. radical, channeled, about 1/2 wide; umbel 4 - 6-rayed capillary, erect, spreading; sheaths truncate;...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 4
5. ELEOCH'ARIS, R. Br. Spiked Rush. (Gr a marsh,., to rejoice; plants delighting in marshy grounds.) Spikes terete; glumes imbricated all around; bristles of the perigynium mostly 6 (3 to 12) r...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 5
15 E. melanocarpa Torr. Culm compressed, furrowed, slender, almost filiform, wiry, 12 - 18' high; sheaths truncate; spike lance-oblong, rather acute, 4 - 6 in length, 20 - 40-flowered; glumes ovate, ...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 6
9 S. maritinius L. Sea Bullrush. Culm acutely 3-angled, leafy, 2 - 3f high; lvs. broad-linear, rough-edged, cariuate, taller than the stem; spikes conglomerate, 6 - 10, nearly an inch long, corymbous;...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 7
straw or chaff, there being but one scale to the flower.) Spike many-flowered; glumes imbricated all around; interior scale 1, embracing the flower and fruit; bristles 0; stamens 1; style 2-cleft, n...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 8
6 T. carinata. Culm flattened, setaceous, 3 to 6' high, with a short, solitary setaceous leaf near the base; spike single, ovoid, lateral near the top of the culm; glumes green, 5 to 8, broad-ovate, v...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 9
7 R. niiliacea Gray. Culm slender, triangular, very leafy below, 2f high, fistulous; lvs. rather rigid, flat, lance-linear, smooth, glaucous, 6 to 8' long, 3 to 4 wide; spikes obovate, all pedicellat...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 10
23 R. cephaldntha Gray. St. 2 - 3f high, triangular, stout: lvs. linear, very narrow, the lower and radical nearly as long as the stem; hds. roundish, axillary and terminal, dense, 5 to 7 diam., the ...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 11
3 S. ciliata Mx. Culm 1 to 2f high, acutely 3-angled, the angles scabrous above; lvs. channeled, pubescent as well as the sheaths; bracts fringed with long, whitish hairs; fascicle subsolitary, termin...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 12
8. Pistillate spikes with enclosed or nearly enclosed peduncles. Perigyhia mostly inflated, beaked, angular-striate. Spikes often quite large, (r) r Perigyniu...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 13
14 C. chordorrhiza L. Spikelets 3 - 5, aggregated into a head, ovate, sessile: perig. ovate, acuminate, subrostrate, convex above, equaling the broad, ovate and acute glume; st. branching towards the ...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 14
29 C. stellulata Good. Spikelets 4 - 6, ovate, romotish, sessile; perig. broad-ovate, contracted into a short beak, compressed, slightly bifid, scabrous on the edge, diverging and reflexed, a little l...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 15
43 C. cristata Schw. Spikelets 6 - 14, globous, sessile, closely aggregated into an oblong, thickhead of a crested form, bracteate; perig. ovate, oblong, compressed, winged, rostrate-acuminate, bifid,...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 16
. Albi-montana. Perig. ovate-oblong, acuminate of tapering above to a point longer and more convex, and sometimes beginning to curve back wards, with a less obtuse, or short acute glume Variable...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 17
64 C. gynandra Schw. (B. t. 48.) Spikes one or more, lax, oblong, sometimes with a few flowers; spikes about 3, oblong, cylindric, pedicellate, nodding, attenuated below, and more loosely...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 18
76 C. Backii Boott. (t. 97.) Ped. radical, 1 - 4f high, stiff, thick, or large; spike single, with about 3 sterile fls. above; perig. ovate, globous, smooth throughout, 2 to 4, conic-rostrate, entire ...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 19
87 C. atrata L. Spikes 3 to 5, oblong-ovate, somewhat nodding, the tipper rather near and sessile, lower pedunculate, scarcely sheathed; perig. roundish-oval, compressed, glabrous, short-beaked, sligh...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 20
spikes 3, ovate, sessile, rather near, bracteate, few-flowered; perig. ovate or sub-globous, subtriquetrous, acuminate-rostrate, bifid, scabro-pubescent, about equal to the ovate, acuminate glume; ...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 21
108 C. lupuliformis Sartivell. (B. t. 150.) Terminal spike long cylindric, pedunculate, sometimes 1 or 2 short sessile one3 below it; spikes 3 to 5, large (2 to 3'), cylindric, (9 thick) near...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 22
117 C. retrocurya Dew. Spikes 2 - 4, on long, filiform, recurved peduncles, bractcate, subdense-flowered, short and thick, oblong; perig. ovate, triqu. nerved, obtusish, equaling the ovate, cuspidat...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 23
pedunculate, finally recurved; perig. obovate, tapering below, subpediceled, triquetrous, obtuse, orifice mature closed, sometimes short-apiculate, veined, glabrous, longer than the broad, hyaline,...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 24
139 C. laevigata Smith. Spike one and erect, sometimes 2; spikes 2 - 3. oblong, bracteate, pedunculate, nodding; perig. ovate-lanceolate, triquetrous, nerved, rostrate, bifurcate, subdense-flo...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 25
150 C. subulata Mx. Spike erect, small, short, with lane., white gl.; spikes 3 to 5, oblong, 3 to 7-fruited, distant, sessile above, the highest close to the staminate, the lower exsert-ped., l...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 26
160 trichocarpa Muhl. Spikes about 3, erect, rarely 1, or above, cyl, lower shorter; spikes 2 - 4, erect, long-cyl., smoothish, rather loose-flowered; perig. ovate, conic, inflated, ne...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 27
169 C. gigantea Radge. (B. t 151.) Spikes 1 to 3; erect, cyl., slender, near, the lower shorter, sessile, with ovate, acute, or lane. gls.; spikes 2 to 4, cyl, loose, staminate at apex, remote,...
-Order CLV. Cyperaceae. The Sedges. Part 28
179 C. ampullacea Good. Spikes 2 or 3, cyl., erect; spikes 2 or 3, lons-cyl., erect, quite dense, short-ped., bracteate; perig. ovate-globous, a little inflated, diverging, veined, glabrous, a...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses
Herbs, rarely woody or arborescent, with (mostly) hollow, jointed culms; with leaves alternate, distychous, on tubular sheaths split down to the nodes, and a ligule (stipules) of membranous texture wh...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 2
3. ZlZA'NIA, Gron. Indian Rice. ( the Greek name of some similar plant.) - 8 Glumes 0; spikelets 1-flowered; paleae 2, herbaceous. Paleae subequal, awnless; stamens 6. Spikelets subulat...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 3
5. SPOROB'OLUS Brown. Drop-seed Grass. (Gr. seed, to cast.) - Spikelets 1-flowered; glumes 2, unequal, the lower smaller; fl. sessile; palere 2, beardless, awnless, usually exceeding the glume...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 4
2 C. arundinacea Willd. Culm and leaves as in No. 1. Plant bright green; panicle purple and green, erect and with ascending or erect branches which arc floriferous more than half their length; glumes ...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 5
Panicle expanding. Glumes some shorter than the paleae. Rudiment none.................... Nos. 1, 2 Panicle contracted. Gl. some longer than pal...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 6
2 P. alpinum L. Mountain Herd's Grass. Culm about If high, simple, erect; lvs. shorter than the sheaths, broad and clasping at base, acute at apex, smooth; sheaths inflated; spicate pan., oblong-ovate...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 7
14. ORYZOP'SIS, Mx. Mountain Rice. (Gr. rice, appearance.) Spikelets 1-flowered; glumes membranous-bordered, veined, subequal, and about equaling the oblong, terete, deciduous, short-stiped flow...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 8
2 to 4' long, alternate, suberect, pilous at base; spikelets large (1 1/4' diam.), in 3 rows on the narrow, flexuous rachis. - Car. to Fla. and La. 8 P. tenue Kunth. Glabrous; culm erect, very ...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 9
21 P. interruptum. Culm strictly erect, wiry, tali (2 to3f); lvs. long, linear, 8 to 15' by 3 to 4, clothed with copious soft hairs, as well as the sheaths; spikes 3 or 4, raceme-like, 2 to 6' lon...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 10
8 P. Vilfiforme. Glabrous throughout; culm decumbent, ascending 2 to 3f, branched; lvs. long, linear, scarcely rough-edged; sheaths with a tuft of hairs at throat; pan. simple, with racemed, spreading...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 11
19 P. latifolium L. Culm mostly erect, 1 to 2f high; lvs. lanceolate, base dilated and cordate-clasping, 3 to 5' by 1, 11 to 13'veined, smoothish; sheaths hirsute at throat; pan. exserted, compound, l...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 12
2 S. glauca Beauv. Bottle Grass. Culm 2 - 3f; lvs. lance-linear, carinate, rough, hairy at base; sheaths striate, smooth; ligules setous; spike cylindric, yellowish-green, 2 - 4' long, nearly simple; ...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 13
24. HIEROCH'LOA, Gmel. Seneca Grass. (Gr. sacred, glass; from its fragrance.) Spikelets 3-flowered; glumes 2, scarious; lateral flowers staminate, triandrous; central flower , dian-drous...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 14
. secunda. Horse-mane Oats. Panicle 1-sided; awns short. 29. TRISE'TUM, L. (Lat. tria, three, setum, a bristle; a characteristic term.) Spikelet 2 - 5-flowered; glumes 2, shorter than the {lo...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 15
1 T. seslerioides Torr. False Red-top. Culm hard and firm, glabrous, 4 to 5f high; lvs. glabrous, linear, involute when dry, sheaths hairy at the throat; pan. open, loose, 8 to 12' long, the slender b...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 16
Fls. awned. - Awns conspicuous, about equaling or exceeding the pales.................... Nos. 1, 2 - Awns much shorter than the lanceolate ...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 17
39. ERAGROS'TIS, Beauv. Spikelets 5 to (rarely fewer)-flowered, compressed; glumes and fls. membranous; lower pale carinate, 3-veined, not webbed, upper pale persistent on the flexuous rachis a...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 18
Branches of the panicle in 2s, 8s, or often single. (*) * Flowers not webbed, merely pubescent on the back, (a) a Annual. Panicle dense with su...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 19
13 P. trivialis L. Rough Meadow Grass. Culm sometimes stoloniferous at base, roughish backwards, 2 - 3f; lvs. lance-linear, acute, rough-edged, lower ones very long, cauline as long as the roughish sh...
-Order CLVI. Gramineae. Grasses. Part 20
10 G. distans Wahl. Very smooth; culm firm and leafy, oblique, round, branched at base, 1 - 2f; lvs. flat, lance-linear; pan. spreading, branches fasciculate, in 3s to 5s, crowded, straight; spikelets...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae
1. Leersia. a, L. orizoides, a raceme, b, spikelet, an open flower, ]c, a spikelet (flower) of L. lenticularis. d, Flower open. e, Ovary and stigmas. Zizania. - a Z. aquatica, staminate flowers,...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 2
Gymnopogon. a G. racemosum, branch, n. m. b Glumes, c Pales, d G. fil-iformis, branch, n. m. e Spikelet m. d Spikelet closed. Cynodon. a C. Dactylon, dim. c Spikelet in flower, b Portion of spike. ...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 3
4 E. striatus Willd. St. slender, erect; lvs. and sheaths smooth, the former lance-linear, acuminate, scabrous on the upper surface; spike erect, 2 to 3' long; invol. 4-leaved, strongly veined; spikel...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 4
2 L. filiformis R. & S. Culm geniculate below, upright 3 to 4f; sheaths some hairy; lvs. lance-linear, rough-edged, twice larger (1f by 9 or less) than in the last; pan. near 2f long, the numerous sp...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 5
59. DACTYLOCTE'NIUM, Willd. Egyptian Grass. (Gr. finger, a small comb; sc. spikes digitate, pectinate.) Spikelets 2 to -flowered, arranged in several unilateral, digitate spikes; glum...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 6
spikelets 2-flowered, outer flower staminate, inner neuter; spikelets 2-flowered, the lower flower abortive; outer glume enclosing the flowers in a cavity of the thick, jointed rachis, with a...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 7
3 E. brevibarbis Mx. Culm stout, 3 to 7f, erect, glabrous; lvs. broad-linear, smooth, except at the base; pan. large (1 to 2f), contracted, lance-oblong, the rac. more distinct from the fewer hairs; h...
-Illustrating The Genera Of Gramineae. Part 8
8 A. Halei. Culm rigid, 3 to 5f high, strict, with long, slender branches above, each with a single terminal short (12 to 15,) spike,; lvs. long, rigid, rough-edged; sterile spkl. both gls. short-aw...
-Order CLVII. Marsileaceae. Pepperworts
Herbs creeping or floating, with the leaves petiolate or sessile, circinate in vernation. Fruit (sporocarps) situated at the base of the leaves or leafstalks, containing the capsular sporanges of one ...
-Order CLVIII. Lycopodiaceae. Club Mosses
Plants creeping or erect, branching, rarely simple, abounding in ducts, with the leaves small, numerous, crowded, entire, lanceolate or subulate, 1-nerved. Fruits sessile, axillary or crowded into a s...
-Order CLIX. Equisetaceae. Horsetails
Plants leafless, simple stems, or with whorled branches. Stems striate-sulcate, jointed, fistular between, and separable at, the joints. Sheaths dentate, crowning each internode. Fructification a dens...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns
Stem a perennial, creeping, horizontal rhizome, or sometimes erect and arborescent. Fronds (fruit-bearing leaves) variously divided, rarely entire, with forked veins, and mostly circinate vernation. F...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 2
4. SCHlZae'A Smith. (Gr. to cut, cleave; alluding to the many-cleft spikes.) Sporangia oval, radiate at top, sessile, bursting laterally; indusium continuous, formed of the inflexed margins of the le...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 3
5 P. Dryopteris L. Ternate Polypod. Frond ternate, bipinnate; branches of the frond spreading, deflexed, segments obtuse, subcrenate; sori marginal; root filiform, creeping. - This beautiful fern grow...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 4
2 A. Curtisii, N. sp. (We saw specimens of a new Adiantum in the herbarium of Rev. M. A. Curtis, from the Mts. of N. Car. But our notes are insufficient at present for its proper diagnosis.) 12. DI...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 5
7 A. Filix-fmina Bernh. Frond bipinnate; lfts. lanceolate, acuminate; seg. oblong-lanceolate, deeply cut-pinnatifid; ultimate seg. 2 - 3-toothed; sori reniform or lunate, arranged near the veins...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 6
19. ONOC'LEA, L. Sensitive Fern. (Gr. , a kind of vessel, to close.) Fronds sterile and fertile; sori clustered, confluent; proper indusium very thin, lateral; common indusium formed of the seg...
-Order CLX. Filices. Ferns. Part 7
10 A. Thelyptera Swtz. Lady Fern. Frond smoothish, lance-ovate; lfts. slender, distant, deeply pinnatifid, gradually shorter from near the base upwards; segm. acute, margins reflexed in fruit; sori in...









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