On mountains and by rivers and lakes in the northern forest region. Madawaska and Tobique rivers, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Nicatau Lake, N.B. (Hay.) Near Jupiter River, and at Becscie River, Anticosti; in fields, Gaspé Basin; and along the Ste. Anne des Monts River, Gaspé, Q. (Macoun.) Table-top Mountain, and Madeline River, Gaspé, Q. (Porter.) Temiscouata, Q. (Burgess.) Lake Mistassini, N.E.T. (J. M. Macoun.) Hayes River, Keewatin. (B. Bell.) Shore of Current River, at Port Arthur, Lake Superior; high hills near Lesser Slave Lake, and at Peace River Canon, lat. 56; quite common in grassy places, from Morley westward through the Rocky Mountains to Roger's Pass, Selkirk Mountains, B.C. (Macoun.) Along Belly River, lat. 49°. (Burgess.) Damp wood, Camp Akamina, Rocky Mountains, lat. 49°. (Dawson.) Goose Creek Mountain, five miles from Keithly, B.C.,. alt. 5,800 feet. (Bowman.) Rocky Mountains to arctic America. (Hooker, Fl.) Kotzebue Sound. (Rothr. Alask.) Frances River, near lat, 61°, north of British Columbia. (Dawson.)
Var. nigra, Boott, Ill. 114.
C. nigra, All. Fl. Ped. II., 267; Hook., Fl. II., 224, (1840.)
Apparently rare or overlooked in Canada. On the higher mountain slopes and summits of the Rocky Mountains westward from Castle Mountain to the Selkirk Mountains, at Roger's Pass, B.C.; Stewart's Lake Mountain, B.C., lat. 55°. (Macoun.) Labrador. (Schweinitz, Torrey vide Hooker, Fl.)
Var. ovata, Boott, Ill. 114.
(2579.) C. heteroneura, W. Boott, Bot. Calif. II., 239, (1880.)
Summit of the South Kootanie Pass, Rocky Mountains, 1881. (Dawson.) Only a few specimens were obtained, but these accord well with the description. The light colored auricles of the bracts, and white perigynia with a purple emarginate tip, separate it from the var. erecta of the preceding species.
(2580.) C. alpina, Swartz. Lilj. Svensk. Fl, Ed. II., 26.
C. Vahlii, Schk.; Hook., Fl. II., 216, (1840.)
C. media, R. Br., App. Frankl. Narr., 763, (1823.)
C. alpina, var. nigrescens. Olney, Cat. Wheeler's Pl., 53.
Not uncommon northward, or on mountains. Crevices of rocks at Jupiter River, and Ellis Bay, Anticosti; fall of Ste. Anne des Monts, at the base of Mount Albert, Q.; shores of Lake Nipigon, and the shore of Lake Superior, at Port Arthur, Ont. (Macoun.) North shore of Lake Superior. (Agassiz.) Moose Factory, James Bay. (Cottar & Dr. Hayden.) Fort George, James Bay. (J. M. Macoun.) South Kootanie Pass, Rocky Mountains. (Dawson.) Wot woods, Swan Lake House, Man.; woods along the route from Edmonton to Peace River and at Lake Athabasca; occasionally met with in the Rocky Mountains, westward to Kicking Horse Lake; mountain woods at McLeod's Lake, B.C., lat. 55°. (Macoun.) Common in British America to Arctic coast; Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.) Lewes River, lat. 62°, north of British Columbia. (Dawson.)
C. arctica, Dew. Sill. Journ. XXVII, 239, (1835.) C. Hallii, Olney, Hayden's Rep. 496, (1871.)
Abundant in the northern part of the prairie region, extending from Portage la Prairie by Fort Ellice, Touchwood Hills, Fort Carleton, and Edmonton, to Lac la Nun, near the Athabasca River; rather rare along the Bow River, at Morley. (Macoun.) Carleton Fort. (Hooker, Fl.) In the prairie region all the specimens have the terminal spike-let androgynous; in some of those from Lac la Nun, it is entirely staminate, and in others androgynous.
(2582.) C. virescens, Muhl. (1806); Pursh, Fl. I., 39, (1814.)
C. costata, Schweinitz, An. Tab. (1823.)
C. virescens, var. eltiptica. Olney, Exsicc. III., 21, (1870.)
In open grassy woods, western Ontario. Quite common in open woods, Niagara Falls, Essex Centre, and Amherstburgh. Lake Erie. (Macoun.) Low woods, near Leamington, Essex Co.; and Point aux Pins, Lake Erie. (Burgess.)
(2583.) C. triceps, Michx. Fl. L, 170, (1803); Pursh, Fl. I, 40.
C. hirsuta, Willd.; Hook., FL II., 216, (1840.)
C. viridula, Schwein. & Torr. Car. Mon., 320, (1824.)
C. hirsuta, var. pedunculata, Schwein. & Torr. Car. Mon. 323, (1824.)
C complanata, Torr. & Hook., Monogr. 408, (1836.)
C. Smithii, Porter; Olney, Exsicc. I., 28, (1870.)
C. Bolliana, Boeckeler, Flora, 40, (1878.) Bather rare in western Ontario, or overlooked. Abundant in rocky thickets, Qneenstown Heights, and Foster's Flats, near the whirlpool, Niagara Falls. (Macoun.)
(2584.) C. gracillima, Schweinitz, An. Tab. (1823); Hook. PI. II., 217.
C. digitalis, Schwein. & Torr. Car. Mon. 324, (1824.) Abundant in open woods and meadows. Woods at Truro, Windsor, and Yarmouth, N.S.; North Sydney, Cape Breton. (Macoun.) Newfoundland. (Reeks.) Bass River, Kent Co.; Tobique River, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Frye's Island, N.B. (Hay.) Petitcodiac, and Clifton, N.B. (Brittain.) Bather common at Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Common in meadows at Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Kemptville, Ont. (Porter.) Very common from Carleton Place westward to Belleville, Owen Sound, and thence to Kakabeka Falls, thirty miles west of Port Arthur, Lake Superior. (Macoun.) Vicinity of Hamilton, Ont. (Logie.) Wet meadows, London, Ont. (Burgess. Millman.) Canada to Norway House, north end of Lake Winnipeg. (Hooker, Fl.)
(2585.) C. formosa, Dew. Sill. Journ. VIII., 97, (1824.)
Apparently very rare in Canada. Found in profusion in a meadow on the right bank of the Moira, near the paper mill, Belleville, Ont., June 18, 1867. Never collected since 1873.
(2586.) C. squarrosa, Linn., Sp. Pl. 973, (1753.)
C. typhina, Michx., Fl. I., 169, (1803.)
C. typhinoides, Schweinitz, An. Tab. (1823.) This species seems confined to a restricted area in western Quebec and Eastern Ontario. Low sandy beach, Buckingham, Ottawa River, Q. (Ami.) Duck Island, near Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.)