C. lepidocarpa, Tausch, Flora, 179, (1834.)
C.flava, var. androgyna, Olney, Exsicc. III., 27, (1871.)
Not uncommon in wet meadows, and by river margins, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Newfoundland. (Reeks.) Pictou, Truro, and Yarmouth, N.S. (Macoun.) Common in damp meadows, St. John, and Bass River. N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Tobique River, N.B. (Hay.) Jupiter River, Anticosti; (androgynous form) and in abundance in meadows at Gaspé Basin, Q. (Macoun.) Madeline River, Gaspé Q. (Porter.) Pentecost River, Q. (St. Cyr.) Beaver meadows, Partridge Lake, Grimsthorpe, North Hastings; in great profusion in a meadow near Foxboro, Hastings Co.; one mile north of Colborne, Northumberland Co.; beaver meadows, Lake Isaac, Bruce Peninsula; marshy place, mouth of Current River, Port Arthur, Lake Superior; Nipigon
House, Lake Nipigon, north of Lake Superior. (Macoun.) Swampy river flat, London, Ont. (Burgess. Millman.) LakeMistassini, N.E.T. (J. M. Macoun.) Rather common on the margins of rivers and small streams, from the Kananaskis westward through the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia Valley, at Donald, B. C. (Macoun.) Lake Winnipeg. (Hooker, Fl.)
Var. rectorostrata, Bailey, (ined.)
C. Urbani, (?) Boeckeler, Engler's Bot. Jahrb. VII., 280, (1886.)
Plant less yellow than the species. Spikes more scattered, the lowest two or three inches from the next above, remote and usually conspicuously stalked, beak short, straight or nearly so. (Bailey.) This form seems to me to come between C. flava, and C. oederi, but is unlike either. The specimens referred here agree in many respects with the description of C. Urbani, but as that species is based on immature specimens, allowance must be made for inaccuracies. Our specimens are in some cases one foot or more high, and in most cases the lower spikelet is distant and compound. The plant approaches 0. flava in general appearance, but the spikelets and perigynia are much smaller, and the latter is not reflexed at maturity. Nanaimo, Gold-stream, Shawnigan Lake, and Home Lake near Qualicum, Vancouver Island. Habitat is in wet gravel along rivers or lakes. (Macoun.)-Spence's Bridge, along the Thompson River, B.C., 1885. (Fletcher.)
V. Spikelets unisexual, the upper male; mostly single; the rest female or sparingly androgynous.
* Stigmas II.
(2691.) C. caespitosa, Linn., Fl. Suec. Ed. II., 333.
C. concolor, R. Br. Suppl. App. Parry's Voy., 218, (1823.) C. Pacifica, Drejer., Fl. Ex. Hafn., 292. C. Drejeri, Lang. Fl. Ratisb., 548.
Said by Boeeckler to occur in British America. (Bailey.) Newfoundland. (Reeks.) Between Repulse Bay and Cape Lady Pelly, Hudson Bay. (Br. Rae.) Wet meadow, Nachacco River, British Columbia. The specimens referred here are young, but they resemble very closely C. caespitosa of Europe. (Macoun.)
Var. fllifolia, Boott. Ill. 182.
C. aperta, var. angustifolia, Boott, Hook., Fl. II., 218, (1840.)
Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River, lat. 67°. (Dr. Richardson.) Cascade Mountains, lat. about 49°. (Br, Lyall.) A stouter form. (Bailey.)
(2598.) C. vulgaris, Fries. Mant. III., 155, (1846.)
C. caespitosa, Good., Linn. Trans. II, 195, (1792); Pursh, Fl. I., 38. C. Goodenovii, Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2d. Ser.) XI., 191, (1838.) C. limula, (?) Gray, Man. Ed. V., 582, (1868.) C. dubitita, Sommers, Cat. Nov. Scotia Plants.
This species, in one form or another, crosses the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Newfoundland. (B. Bell.) Abundant in wet meadows at Truro, "Windsor, Yarmouth, Point Pleasant, and North West Arm, Halifax, N.S. (Macoun & Burgess.)' Pictou, Co., N.S. (McKay.) Halifax, N.S. (Sommers, Cat.) Bass River, Kent Co., and Carleton Co., N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) St. Andrews, N.B. ( Vroom.) Boggy places, at South West Point, Anticosti; low meadows at Gaspé Basin, and Rivière Pierre, Gaspé coast, Q. (Macoun.) Mingan River, Q. (St. Cyr.) Cacouna, St. Lawrence River. (Burgess.) Mecatina River, Q. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and Lake Winnipeg. (Richardson.) North shore of Lake Superior. (Agassiz.) In a wet prairie near McLeod's Lake, B. C. (Macoun.) Alaska. (Bailey.) Greenland. (Lange.) Sitka, and Kotzebue Sound. (Rothr. Alask.)
Var. juncella, Fries, Summa, 230.
C. Kelloggii, W. Boott, Bot. Calif. II., 240, (1880.)
Specimens referred here by Mr. W. Boott, were collected at Yarmouth, at the railway bridge over the Weymouth, and at Windsor, N.S.; shores of Red Bay, Lake Huron. (Macoun.) Western summit of the North Kootanie Pass, Rocky Mountains. (Dawson.)
Var. hyperborea, Boott. Ill. 167.
C. Bigelovii, Torr.; Schweinitz, An. Tab. (1823.)
C. Washingtoniana, Dew. Sill. Journ. X., 272, (1826.)
C. saxatilis, Dew., Wood's Bot. Ed. I., 581, (1845.)
C. saxatilis, var. Bigelovii, Torr. Cyp. 397, (1836.)
C. hyperborea, Drej. Revis. Crit. Car. 41, (1841.)
C. rigida, var. Bigelovii, Tuckerman, Enum. Meth. 19, (1843.)
C. dubitata, Dew., Wood's Bot. 755, (1861.)
C. rigida, Good.; Hook., Fl. II, 217, in part, (1840.)
On the summit of Mount Albert, Shickshock Mountains, Gaspé, alt. 4,000 feet. (Macoun.) Lower St. Lawrence, Q. (Pringle.) Nain, and Ford's Harbor, coast of Labrador; Cape Chudleigh, and Eskimo Village of Hyla, Hudson Strait. (B. Bell.) Labrador, and arctic coast. (Hooker, Fl.) Northern California to Alaska. (Bailey.) Greenland. (Lange.) Kotzebue Sound, and Norton Sound. (Bothr. Alask.)
Var. alpina, Boott. Ill. 167.
C. rigida, Good.; Hook., Fl. II., 217, in part, (1840.) Mountains of Colorado to Alaska. (Bailey.) Mountains near Mc-Leod's Lake, lat. 55°, northern British Columbia. (Macoun.)
(2599.) C. decidua, Boott, Linn. Trans. XX., 119,
(1845.) C. Andersoni, Boott, Hook., Fl. Antarct. II., 364.
Ounalashka, 1885. Gathered by Mr. S. Applegate, Signal Observer at that station, and determined by Prof. Bailey. A few specimens of a Carex akin to this were gathered at Roger's Pass, Selkirk Mountains, in the summer of 1885. They agree with Prof. Bailey's remark on page 81 of his synopsis, in having the "scales and perigynia deciduous; perigynium conspicuously stipulate and strongly nerved." It may be a form of 0. vulgaris, but we have not material enough to determine.