(1880.) On the summits of the higher Rocky Mountains, at Kicking Horse Lake and westward to Roger's Pass, Selkirk Mountains; abundant on the summit of Mount Arrowsmith, Vancouver Island, alt. 5,500 feet. (Macoun.)
(2601.) C. Jamesii, Torrey, Cyp., 398, (1836.) C. compacta, Hook., Fl. II., 220,
(1840.) South Kootanie Pass, Rocky Mountains, lat. 49°. (Dawson.) Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.) Rather common in wet places from Morley westward through the Rocky Mountains to Roger's Pass, in the Selkirk Mountains, B.C. (Macoun.) Cariboo Mountains, B.C., alt. 6.000 feet. (Bowman.)
(2602.) C. aquatilis, Wahl. Köngl. Acad. Handl. XXIV., 165,
(1802.) Common in wet meadows and ditches from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward. Newfoundland. (Reeks.)
In ditches at Truro. Halifax, and Windsor, N.S, (Macoun.) Kent, and St. John Co's., and Harris Cove, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Salt Lake, and Becscie River, Anticosti; mouths of all rivers on the Gaspé coast, and at Mont Louis and Grand Etang, Q. (Macoun.) Jacques Cartier River, Quebec Co., Q. (St.Cyr.) Vicinity of Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Abundant in marshes along the Bay of Quinte, and westward throughout Ontario to Lake Huron, and north-westerly around Lake Superior to Thunder Bay, at Port Arthur. (Macoun.) Island east of Mississaugi Point, Lake Huron; Nelson River, and York Factory, Hudson Bay. (R. Bell.)
Lake Mistassini, N.E.T.; Charlton Island, "The Twins," and Fort George, James Bay; Severn River, Keevvatin; Muskeg Island, Lake-Winnipeg. (J. M. Macoun.) Lakes Superior and Huron; Fort Simpson, Fort Chipweyan, and Methy Portage. (Richardson.) Wet prairies at Emerson, Man. (Burgess.) Extremely abundant over the whole prairie region, on the borders of ponds and in marshes, extending northwesterly to Peace River, in lat. 58°; rather common in the Rocky Mountains, from Calgary, on Bow River, to Roger's Pass, in the Selkirk Mountains, B.C.; common in northern British Columbia, extending far northward; rather rare on Vancouver Island; only observed at Lost Lake, near Cedar Hill. (Macoun.) Canada to Mackenzie River; Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.) Ounalashka and Kotzebue Sound. (Rothr. Alask.)
Var. epigeios, Laest. Yet, Ac. Handl, 339, (1822.)
C. stans, Drej. Revis. Crit. Car. 40, (1841.)
C. aquatilis, var. minor, Boott, Ill. 163. From Colorado to the Arctic coast. (Bailey.) Arctic sea-coast. (Richardson.) In meadows at the mouth of Madeline River, Gasp coast, Q.; in ditches near Windsor, N. S. Evidently approaching C. stricta, but neither young nor old sheaths reticulated; another form named C. borealis by Olney, was gathered along the shore of Lake Superior, at Thunder Bay, in 1869. This specimen seems to approach C. vulgaris var. juncella. (Macoun.)
(2603.) C. Stricta, Lamarck, Dict, De. Bot. III., 387, (1789.) C. acuta, Pursh, Fl. I., 38, (1814.)
C. angustata, Boott, Hook., Fl. II., 218, (1840.) C. strictior, Dew., Wood's Cl. Book, 755,
(1861.) C. Virginiana, var. elongata, Boeckeler, Linnaea, XL., 432, (1875.)
Common in ditches; growing in thick clumps, especially in the eastern provinces. Newfoundland. (Reeks.) Halifax, N.S. (Sommers, Cat.) Common in boggy meadows at North Sydney, and Louisburg, Cape Breton; abundant in ditches and bogs at Point Pleasant, Halifax, and Yarmouth, N.S. (Macoun.) Glenelg, Guysboro Co., N.S. (Faribault.) Richibucto, Kent Co.; Fredericton, Norton, and Salmon River, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Becscie River, Anticosti. (Macoun.) Vicinity of Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Common around Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Vicinity of Hamilton, Ont. (Logie.) Common in marshy meadows near Belleville, and at Trenton, and Owen Sound, Ont.; near Lake Ellen, Nipigon River, and along the Kaministiqua, west of Port Arthur. (Macoun.) West of Grand Island marsh, Georgian Bay. (R. Bell.) Wet river bank, London, Ont. (Burgess.) Port Colborne, Lake Erie. (McGill Coll. Herb.)
A remarkable form of this species grows at Campbellford, Northumberland Co., Ont. As usual, it grows in large clumps about three feet high, but instead of the spikes being sessile, they are peduncled, or have scattered perigynia for nearly half their length, which is often from three to four inches. The sheaths are scarcely fibrilose, and many of the perigynia are abortive. I conclude from these characters that it is a hybrid between C. aquatilis and C. stricta.
Usually smaller and more slender than the species, the basal sheaths not fibrilose; spikes short (seldom over an inch long), sessile or nearly so, very rarely attenuated at the base, spreading; bracts usually conspicuously spreading; scales very sharp, spreading, longer than the perigynia. (Bailey.) A very obscure species and evidently not the one figured by Boott. I agree with Prof. Bailey in doubting the accuracy of the eastern C. aperta. My specimens, though named by Dewey and Olney, appear to be C. stricta, var. strictior, Carey; Gray, Man. V., 583, (1868.) (Macoun.) Near Richibucto, Kent Co. J and rather common at Salmon River, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Tobique River, N.B. (Hay.) Mer Bleue, near Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Border of a little lake one mile north of Hooper's Lake, Tudor, North Hastings, Ont.; fifteen miles up the Kaministiqua, west of Port Arthur, Lake Superior. (Macoun.) Wet river bank, London, Ont. (Burgess.) Specimens collected on the Nachacco River, in northern British Columbia, in 1875, are referred here. I doubt their identity with the eastern, specimens, but they are placed here for the present.
(2604.) C. lenticularis, Michx., Fl. I., 172, (1803); Hook., Fl. II., 219.
Abundant in the beds of rivers, growing in the crevices of rocks in, large tufts. Chiefly found in northern Ontario, and north-eastward. Coast of Labrador, lat. 51° 30'. (Allen.) Bass River, Kent Co.; not rare at Salmon River; St. Stephen, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Amongst rocks, Ste. Anne des Monts River, Gaspé, Q.; on wet rocks in rear of the old saw-mill, Marmora village, Hastings Co.; shore of Gull Lake, Barrie, Addington Co.; abundant from Balsam Lake, the whole length of Gull River, Victoria Co.; very abundant all around Lake Superior, and north up Nipigon River to the Lake. (Macoun.) Shallow water, Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph, Muskoka Co., Ont. (Burgess.) Michi-picotin River, Ont. (R. Bell.) Lake Mistassini, N. E. T.; Severn