C. xanthophysa, Wahl. Köngl. Acad. Handl. XXIV., 152, (1802.) Peat bogs and marshes. Cold swamps, Newfoundland. (Reeks.) Marshes and wet ground in numerous places at Point Pleasant, and North West Arm, Halifax, N.S. (Macoun & Burgess.) Halifax, N.S. (Sommers, Cat.) Norton, and St. Martin's, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Eastman's Springs, near Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph, Muskoka, Ont. (Burgess.) Peat bog, Caledonia Springs, near Ottawa. (C. F. McCrea.)
Swamps and marshy woods; common. Newfoundland. (La Pylaie.) Truro, and Annapolis, N.S. (Macoun.) Rather common in Pictou, and GuysboroCo's., N.S. (McKay.) Glenelg, Guysboro Co., N.S. (Faribault.) Rather common in Kent Co'.; King's Co., and on St. John River, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Plains of Abraham, Quebec. (St. Cyr.) Sugar Bush Lake, Montcalm Co., Q. (D' Urban.) Woods near Buckingham, Q. (Ami.) St. Andrews, near Montreal. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Vicinity of Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Wet woods, common at Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Very common in wet woods throughout central Ontario, and westward to Amherstburgh Lake Erie, and Owen Sound, Georgian Bay; also north-westerly to Lake Ellen, Nipigon River, and along the west shore of Lake Superior, and westward to Rainy Lake. (Macoun.) Vicinity of Hamilton, Ont. (Logie.) London, Ont. (Burgess. Millman.) Canada to Norway House, north of Lake Winnipeg. Hooker, Fl.) Lake of the Woods, and Rainy Lake. (Richardson.)
(2670.) C. Crayii, Carey, Sill. Journ. IV., 22, (1847.)
C. intumescens, var. globvlaris, Gray, Ann. N. Y. Lyc. III., 236, (1836.)
Damp woods near Buckingham, Q.; very rare, collected by H. M. Ami. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Abundant in wet grassy woods, Colchester, near Amherstburgh, Lake Erie. (Macoun.)
(2671.) C. lurida, Wahl. Köngl. Acad. Handl. XXIV., 153, (1802.)
C. lupulina, Muhl. (1805); Hook., Fl. II., 223; Macoun, Cat. No. 2118; Pursh, Fl. I., 41, (1814.)
C. Canadensis, Dew. Sill. Journ. XLI, 2d. Ser. 229, (1866.)
Abundant in tufts about ponds and in ditches in Ontario. Near Windsor, N.S. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Hampton, and Norton, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Tobique River, N.B. (Hay.) Halifax, N.S. (Sommers, Cat.) St. John, on the Richelieu River, Q. (C. F. McCrea.) Gatineau Point, Q.; and abundant in all low grounds at Ottawa, in various forms. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Abundant at Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Very common throughout central and western Ontario, extending to fifteen miles up the Kaministiqua, west of Lake Superior. (Macoun.) London, Ont.; Point aux Pins, Essex Co., Ont.; and Parry Sound, Georgian Bay. (Burgess.) Vicinity of Hamilton, Out. (Logie.) Port Colborne, Lake Erie. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Hudson Bay. (Hooker, Fl.)
Var. divergens, Bailey, Carex, Syn. 63, (1886.)
C. Bella-villa, Dew. Sill. Journ. 2d. Ser. XLI., 229, (1866.)
"Plant more slender, spikes scattered or remote, oblong or cylindrical, much more loosely flowered, more or less staminate at the apex; perigynium more straw-colored, less turgid, slenderly beaked, diverging at right angles; scales longer, conspicuously awned." (Bailey.) Marshy meadows near Foxboro, six miles north of Belleville, Hastings Co., Ont. I believe, with Prof. Bailey, that this is a variety of G. lurida, but it cannot be a hybrid with G. folliculata, as that species has never been found within one hundred miles of the locality.
Var. polystachya, Bailey, Carex, Syn. 63, (1886.)
C. lupulina, var. polystachya, Schweinitz & Torr., Mon. Cyp. 337, (1825.)
C. lupuliformis, Sartwell, Exsicc. 147, (1848.)
C. Beyrichiana, Boeckeler, Linnaea, XLI., 239, (1877.)
In Hastings and Northumberland Co's., Ont., there are numerous forms of G. lurida, all of which have pedunculate and scattered spikes, and are very unlike typical G. lurida. One of these was named G. Canadensis, by Dewey, and the others referred to C. lupulina, var. pedunculata, and var. gigantoidea, Dewey. These are now placed under this form pending a better arrangement of the several varieties of this multiform species.
‡‡ Vesicariai, Bailey, Carex, Syn, 64.
(2672.) C. oligosperma, Michx., Fl. I., 174, (1803); Hook., Fl. II. 220.
C. Oakesiana, Dew. Sill. Journ. XIV., 351, (1828.) Peat and sphagnum swamps, rather rare. Labrador. (Allen.) In a peat bog near Richibucto, and at Madawaska, N.B. (Fowler,. Gat.) Thunder River, Q. (St. Cyr.) Mer Bleue, near Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Abundant in bogs, Kiladar and Kennebec, Addington Co., and Tudor, Hastings Co., Ont.; One-mile Portage, Nipigon River, Lake Superior. (Macoun.) Lake Superior. (Richardson.) London; and Port Cockburn, Lake Joseph, Muskoka, Ont. (Burgess.) Lake Mistassini, N.E.T. (J. M. Macoun.) From Norway House, Lake Winnipeg, to English River, and Bear Lake, lat. 66°. (Richardson.) Peat bogs, Methy Portage, lat. 57°, where it is in abundance. (Macoun.)
(2673.) C. Raeana, Boott, Rich. Arc. Exped. II., 344, (1857.)
We have never seen specimens of this species except those of Prof. Fowler, from New Brunswick, and the younger specimens collected by Mr. C. E. Smith in northern Maine, and distributed by Olney and
Canby as G. pulla. Prof. Bailey, in his Carex Synopsis, page 66, seems to refer these specimens to G. saxatilis, var. (?) miliaris, but on the preceding page he evidently places the same specimens under this species. In the latter case I agree with him, as the Maine specimens are over two feet in height. He says, speaking of var. (?) milliaris: "very slender, six to sixteen inches high," which cuts out the Maine (immature) specimens altogether, and, in my opinion, Prof. Fowler's New Brunswick specimens also. It is just possible that G. pulla, Gray, Man. 602, and G. Raeana, are the same, and my tall Anticosti specimens of C. rotundata, and Prof. Porter's specimens from Maine, are C. miliaris, Michx. Specimens collected at Lake Mistassini, by Mr. J. M. Macoun, would also come in with G. miliaris. As it was at Lake Mistassini that Michaux obtained the specimens on which he founded the species, our view of the case may be the correct one. Wet shores Rothesay and on the opposite side of the Kennebeccasis River, N.B. (Fower, Gat.) Methy Portage, long. 110°, lat. 57°. (Richardson.) While on the Portage in September, 1875, I looked for this species, but brought away G. oligospermia instead of it.