Q. (Macoun.) Madeline River, Gaspé, Q. (Porter.) Montreal Mountain. (C. F. McCrea.) Meadows near Templeton, Q.; Port Colborne, Ont. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Kemptville, Ont. (Porter.) In all woods at Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Common in woods at Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Woods at Carleton Place, Carleton Co., and westward throughout Ontario to the west side of Lake Superior; Lake Nipigon. (Macoun ) In low thickets, London, Ont. (Burgess. Millman.) Along Lake Superior, Rainy Lake, and Lake of the Woods. (Richardson.) Punk Island, Lake Winnipeg. (J. M. Macoun.) Telegraph Trail, near Stewart's Lake, B.C. (Macoun.) Canada to Norway House, and Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.)
Rich and damp grassy woods in numerous places on the Pacific coast. Fraser River Valley, at Yale, and Boston Bar, B.C.; abundant in thickets at Oak Bay, Groldstream, Shawnagin Lake, Cowichan River, Nanaimo, Alberni, and many other localities, Vancouver Island. (Macoun.) Mount Finlayson, near Victoria, Vancouver Island. (Fletcher.) Shores of Burrard Inlet, at Vancouver city, B.C. (Prof. Fowler.)
Var. sparsiflora, Bailey, ined.
C. Bolanderi, var. sparsiflora, Olney, Proced. Am. Acad., 407, (1872.)
Plant laxer in habit than the type; leaves narrow, spikes much smaller; perigynium half as large, more or less excurved. The most reduced form of the species. (Bailey.) Swamps near the summit of Mount Mark, near Qualicum, Vancouver Island. This is quite a distinct form and closely related to the var. Bolanderi. Collected at 2,500 feet altitude, 1887. (Macoun)
(2559.) C. Norvegica, Schk. (1801); Dew. Sill. Journ. XXXII.,
Abundant in numerous salt marshes at Truro, N.S.; Salt Lake, and Ellis Bay, Anticosti, and from Cape Rosier to Matane, along the Gaspé coast of the St. Lawrence. (Macoun.) Salt marsh, Shodiac, N.B. (Brittain.) Whale Cove, Grand Manan, and Back Bay, Charlotte Co., N.B. (Hay.) Salt marshes, Lower St. Lawrence. (Pringle.) Sitka, and Kotzebue Sound. (Rothr. Alask.)
(2560.) C. brizoides, Linn., var. nemoralis, Wimmer, Fl. Siles. 401.
Arctic America, according to Bceckeler. (Bailey, Carex, Syn. 146.)
(2561.) C. echinata, Murray, Prodr. Goett. 76, (1770.)
Macoun, Cat. No. 2066. C. stelMata, var. sterilis, Torr. Bot. N. York, II., 380, (1843.) C. sterilis, W. Boott, Bot. Calif. II., 236, (1880.)
Culms stiff; spikes large, all contiguous or nearly so; perigynium large, much attenuated above. (Bailey.) Apparently commonest eastward. Only our own specimens and what, have been named C. sterilis, are referred to the species. All others go with the second variety. Topsail, Newfoundland. (R. Bell.) Petticodiac, N.B. (Brit-tain.) Swamps at Truro, and Yarmouth, N.S. (Macoun.) Glenelg, Guysboro, N.S. (Faribault.) St. Charles Islands, Mingan, and Tadou-sac, Q. (St: Cyr.) Rivière do Brig, Anticosti; Gaspé Basin, and L'anse à Valon, Gaspé, Q.; Livingston Point, Lake Nipigon, and Lake Maria, Nipigon River, Ont. (Macoun.) Swampy river flat, London, Ont. (Burgess, Millman.) Not uncommon in marshes at Morley and westward through the Rocky and Selkirk mountains, B.C.; borders of marshes at Goldstream, Alberni, and Mount Mark, near Qualicum, Vancouver Island. (Macoun.)
Var. conferta, Bailey, Carex, Cat. (1884.)
C. stelMata, var. conferta, Chapm. Flora, 534, (1860.)
Bogs at the head of the North West Arm, near Halifax, N.S. (Macoun & Burgess.) Along the coast from Newfoundland southward to Florida. (La Pylaie.) Differs from the species in the oblong densely flowered, and more spreading spikes, and recurved perigynium. (Bailey.)
Var. microstachys, Boeckeler, Linnsea. XXXIX., 125, (1875 )
C. scirpoides, Schkuhr, Riedgr. Nachtr. 19, (1805); Pursh, Fl. I., 37.
C. sterilis, Willd.; Pursh, Fl. I., 34, (1814.)
C. sterilis, vars.ß & γ., Torr. Cyp., 392, (1836.)
C. stellulata, vars. scirpoides & angustata, Gray, Man. Ed. V., 579, (1868);
Macoun, Cat. No. 2066 vars. C. echinata var. angustata, Bailey, Carex, Cat. (1884.)
More slender; spikes small and more scattered; perigynium smaller and less conspicuously beaked. (Bailey.\) Very abundant in swamps and marshes throughout the eastern provinces. Halifax, N.S. (Som-mers, Cat.) Petitcodiac; common in Kent Co., at Bass River; also Carleton Co., N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Common in swamp3 at Truro, N.S.; and along the Ste. Anne des Monts River, Gaspé, Q. (Macoun.) Mingan, and Pentecost rivers, Q. (St. Cyr.) Bogs and marshes, common near Ottawa. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.) Very common around Prescott, Ont. (Billings.) Extremely common throughout central Ontario and westward in the forest region to the Rocky Mountains. (Macoun.) Port Colborne, Ont. (McGill Coll. Herb.) Kemptville, Ont. (Porter.) Vicinity of Hamilton, Ont. (Logie.) Boggy places at London, Ont. (Burgess. Millman.) North shore of Lake Superior. (Agassiz.) Lake Mistassini, N.E.T.; also Souris Elver, and at Medicine Hat, Alberta. (J. M. Macoun.) From Brandon, Man., westward to the Rocky Mountains, and through them to British Columbia, and to Vancouver Island, where it is common. (Macoun.) Common in British America, to the Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.) Sitka, and Ounalashka. (Rothr. Alask.)
(2562.) C. heleonastes, Ehrh.; Linn., fil. Suppl., 414; Hook.,
Fl. II., 214.
C. Carltonia, Dew. Sill. Journ. XXVII., 238, (1835.)
C. manna, Dew. Sill. Journ. XXIX., 247, (1836); Hook., Fl. II., 214.
A rare and alpine or arctic species, seldom detected but easily known by its remarkably rigid appearance. In a boggy meadow on the border of a small lake, three miles south of Kicking Horse Lake, Rocky Mountains. (Macoun.) Hudson Bay to Cumberland House, on the Saskatchewan; Norway House, at foot of Lake Winnipeg. (Hooker, Fl.)