This species seems confined to the sea-coast, or mountains near the sea, Cape Chudleigh, and the Eskimo village of Hyla, Hudson Strait (R. Bell.) Ouatchechou, Q. (St. Cyr.) Grand Etang, Gaspé coast and summit of Mount Albert, Shickshock Mountains, Gaspé, Q. (Macoun. Porter.) Shumagin Islands, Alaska. (Harrington.) Arctic sea-coast. (Richardson.) . Greenland. (Lange.)
(2564.) C. lagopina, Wahl. Kongl. Acad. Handl. XXIV., 145, (1802.)
C. leporina, Willd. (1805); Hook., Fl. II., 214.
This is a boreal or mountain species seldom detected. Maritime rocks, Labrador. (Allen.) On rocks along the sea, near Point Seche, Gaspé coast, Q.; Stewart's Lake Mountain, British Columbia, lat. 55°. (Macoun.) Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.) South Kootanie Pass Rocky Mountains. (Dawson.) On the higher Rocky and Selkirk mountains, from Castle Mountain to Roger's Pass, and the great glacier. (Macoun.) Greenland. (Lange.) Kotzebuo Sound. (Rothr, Alask.)
(2565.) C. Liddoni, Boott, Hook., Fl. II., 214, (1840.)
This species is distinguished by its erect and thick rusty head, and very large and comparitively firm brown perigynium. (Bailey.) Taking the above view of the species, Prof. Bailey refers our specimens to G. pratensis, Drej., yet Mr. Arthur Bennett, of Croydon, England, assures me that our specimens are identical with those in Boott's herbarium. It is certain that Boott's figure in Hooker's Flora Boreali Americana, is different in appearance from our specimens, and it is probable that Boott has figured a young plant of one species and retains a well grown one of another under the same name in his herbarium. Owing to the place of growth, and the absence of all boreal surroundings, I am of opinion that our prairie specimens are not C. pratensis, whatever else they may be, but place them there because I can do no better. Fine specimens with stout culms and well developed spikelets forming a fairly compact head, were gathered at Cedar Hill, Vancouver Island. These are referred to G. Liddoni by both Lange and Bailey. (Macoun.)
(2566.) C. pratensis, Drejer, Rev. Crit, Car. Por., 24, (1841.)
Specimens that we refer here were collected on sand on the east coast of Lake Superior, above Michipicotin, in the summer of 1869, and named G. Liddoni by Prof. Dewey, of Rochester. From the remarks of Prof. Bailey, I am inclined to believe that they belong here. The spikelets are very much narrowed at the base, and in some instances the lower ones become compound. Specimens of this form can be seen in Prof. Dewey's herbarium. (Macoun.) Pic River, Lake Superior (Loring.) Middle Bay, Labrador. (Allen.) Greenland. (Lange.) Moose Mountain Creek and westward on the Souris Plain, Assiniboia. (J. M. Macoun.) Very abundant on the open prairie, and in thickets throughout Manitoba and westward to the Rocky Mountains. I have often seen many acres covered with the tufts of this species, and admired the silvery hue and nodding habit of the spikes. Rather common in the lower valleys of the Rocky Mountains and in the Columbia Valley, at Donald, B.C.; along the Nachacco River, British Columbia, and not uncommon at Goldstream, Cedar Hill, and throughout southern Vancouver Island. (Macoun.)
Since the notes on G. Liddoni and C. pratensis were written, I have had a report from Prof. John Lange, author of "Conspectus Florae Grcenlandicae." He says that the specimens from Michipicotin, Lake Superior, and the Nachacco River, B.C., are the same and seem to be in. termediate between G. scoparia, Schk., and G. pratensis, Drejer. The specimens from the prairie are the same as those of Coulter's Manual, referred to G. pratensis, Drejer., by Bailey. The Vancouver Island specimens he does not know, but thinks they are different from both C. scoparia and G. pratensis. Of these he says: "Mihi ignota; forsan forma G. scoparia; differt a C. pratensi, foliis brevioribus magisque scabris, spicis magis approximatis, squamis atrpfuscis, etc." - Feb. 16, 1888, Joh. Lange.
From the above it is evident that these forms are included in the specimens referred to C. pratensis, but we must wait for more light before finally deciding.
(2567.) C. adusta, Boott, Hook., Fl. II, 215,
(1840.) C. argyrantha, Tuckerman in Herb., (1859.) C. albolutescens, Olney, Exsicc. I., 8, (1870.) C. albolutescens, var. argyrantha, Olney, Exsicc. I., 9, (1870.) C. albolutescens, var. sparsiflora, Olney, Exsicc. V., 11, (1870.) C. adusta, var. argyrantha, Bailey, Carex, Cat. (1884.) Richibucto, Kent Co., and other localities, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) Harbor Island, Mingan, Q. (St. Cyr.) Woods near Niagara Falls, Ont.; very abundant in woods through which fire has run, everywhere around Lake Superior, and Lake Nipigon and westward to Rainy Lake. (Macoun.) Port Arthur, Lake Superior; and Emerson, Man. (Burgess.) On grassy slopes in the Columbia and Beaver Creek valleys, Selkirk Mountains, B. C. (Macoun.) Methy Portage, lat. 57°. (Richardson.) Common in British America to the Rocky Mountains. (Hooker, Fl.)
(2568.) C. pinguis, Bailey, Bull. Bot. Minnesota, (1886.)
C. adusta, var. glomerata, Bailey, Carex, Cat. (1884.) C. albolutescens, var. glomerata, Olney, Exsicc. V., 10, (1870.) This species differs from C. adustain its stiff culm; dense broad head, of which some spikes, or at least the lowest one, are subtended by a short and very broad-based, nerved and pointed bract; perigyniuni very plump, and nearly filled by the achenium, flat or convex and nerveless, or very nearly so, on the inner face, wingless or slightly margined above. It grows in dense tufts in dry soil. (Bailey.) Richibucto, Kent Co.; Nepisiquit Lake and Lower Tobique River, N.B. (Fowler, Cat.) River Ste. Marguerite, Q. (Pringle.) Burnt woods, Tudor, Hastings Co.; woods, Elliott's Falls, Gull River, Victoria Co.; abundant at Livingstone Point, Lake Nipigon; Rainy River, near the Lake of the "Woods; and in the Touchwood Hills, Assiniboia. (Macoun.)