Very variable both in shape and habitat and ranging from Quebec to British Columbia and high northward. Island of Orleans, Que. (J. F. Whiteaves.) Rivière du Loup (en-bas), Que. (McCord.) Island of Anticosti. (St. Cyr.) Exposed cliffs near Cape Rosier, Graspé, Que.; Nepigon Bay, in meadows at Cape Alexander, twelve miles up the Nepigon River, at various points on Lake Nepigon, and at the Pic River, Lake Superior, Ont.; abundant on the prairie close to the sand hills at Flat Creek, Manitoba; on mountain slopes, Bow River Pass, Rocky Mountains; boggy meadow near Fort McLeod, B.C. (Macoun.) Middle Branch of North Fork of Old Man River, Rocky Mountains. (Dawson.) Near head of Dead Man River, B.C. (J. M. Macoun.) Carlton House, on the Saskatchewan, N.W.T. (Richardson.) Wet prairies in the Rocky Mountains (Drummond.) Echimamish River to Knee Lake, and Churchill River near Hudson Bay, Keewatin. (R. Bell.) Open spaces in damp, grassy thickets at the Hudson Bay Co.'s post on Lake Mistassini, and in a similar locality near the Oatmeal Falls on Rupert River, N. E. Ter.; in hard sand between the sand dunes on all the islands in James' Bay, and on Severn River, Keewatin. (J. M. Macoun.) Regina, Assa. (N. H. Cowdry.)
(2971.) B. matricariaefolium, A. Braun, in Doell., Rhein. Fl., 24 (1843). Watt, Can. Nat., iv., 364.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect. iv., 175.
In Canada, so far as known, limited to the westward by Lake Superior, but has been found sparingly in Unalashka. At Pictou, N.S. (McKay.) Dry grass lands, Cape Blomidon, N.S. (Macoun & Burgess.) Truemanville, N.S. (H. Trueman.) Petitcodiac and Titus-ville, N.B. (Brittain.) Damp hillsides, under bushes, Dalhousie, N.B.; King's Mountain, Chelsea, Que.; Casselman, Ont. (Fletcher.) Black River, P.E.I.; gravelly places on sea cliffs, Cape Rosier. Gaspé, Que.; woods near Belleville, Ont.; pine woods five miles north of Campbell-ford, Northumberland Co., Ont.; below the railway bridge, Nepigon River, and on islands in Lake Nepigon, Ont.; thickets at Agassiz, B.C. (Macoun.)
(2972.) B. lanceolatum, Angstroem, Botan. Notiser (1854) 68. Goode, Can. Nat., ix., 300.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 176.
Very local in its distribution on shaded, mossy banks of streams, in rich woods, and low pastures. Fields and rich damp woods, Trueman-ville, N.S. (H. Trueman.) Shady places in rich soil, Fredericton and Bass River, N.B. (Fowler.) Kennebeccasis, KB. (Bay.) Magog, Que. (Goode.) Port Simpson, B.C. (Anderson.)
(2913.) B. Simplex, Hitchcock, Sillim. Am. Journ. of Sci. and Arts, vi. (1823) p. 103. Hook., Fl. Bor. - Am., ii., 265. Watt, Can. Nat., iv., 364.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 177.
B. Virginicum, var. (?) simplex, Gray, Man., ed. 2, 602. Lawson, Can. Nat., i., 292.
Occurs in meadows, damp rich woods, and on hillsides. "Windsor, N.S. (How.) Truemanville, N.S. (Trueman.) Petitcodiac and Fredericton, N.B. (Bailey.) Dalhousie, N.B. (Fletcher.) Prince Edward Island. (F. Bain.) Near the sea shore, Temiscouata, Que. (Thomas.) Quebec, Que. (Brunet.) Montreal, Que. (McCord.) A small island at the east end of St. Joseph's Island, Georgian Bay, Ont. (J. Bell.) Common in meadows along the Kaministiquia River above Fort William, Lake Superior, Ont.; grassy slope below the peak of Castle Mountain, near Silver City, Rocky Mountains. (Macoun.) Between Cumberland House and Hudson Bay, N. W. Ter. (Drummond.)
(2974.) B. ternatum, Swartz, Schrad. Journ., ii., III., Watt, as var. Americanum, Can. Nat., iv., 364. Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 177.
Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., iv., sect. iv., 9.
Botrypus lunarioides, Michx., Fl. Bor. - Am., II., 274.
II., 655. Botrychium ternatum, Swartz, var. lunarioides, Milde, Bot. Monog., 108.
Macoun's Cat, No. 2340, var. i.
The type, which has been made to include var. lunarioides, var. rutoefolium, var. australe, and sub-var. intermedium, has a very wide range, extending quite across the continent and far northward. Cape Porcupine; Boylston, Guysborough Co.; Rawdon, Hants Co.; and other places in Nova Scotia. (Ball.) Bedford and Windsor, N.S.; Rapide de Femme, about six miles below Grand Falls, N.B. (Jack.) Rather common in New Brunswick. (Fowler.) Prince Edward Island. (F. Bain.) Quebec, Que. (Sheppard.) Three Rivers, Que. (Maclagan.) Isle of Orleans, Que. (St. Cyr.) St. Joachim, Que.
(Provancher.) Waste places near Prescott Junction, Ont. (Billings.) Hamilton, Ont. (Buchan.) London, Ont. (Saunders.) Toronto, Blenheim, and Leamington, Ont. (Burgess.) Ottawa, Ont.; New Westminster and Victoria, B.C. (Fletcher.) Salmon River, KB. (J. E. Wetmore.) In fields and by roadsides, Brackley Point, Prince Edward Island; along the north shore of Lake Superior, at Nepigon River, Red Rock, Fort William, etc.; frequent on the western prairies, especially toward the Saskatchewan; Peace River Pass, Rocky Mountains; rare on the snow slides near the summit of the Selkirk Mountains, B.C., on the line of the C. P. By.: also in thickets at Agassiz, B.C., and summit of Mount Arrowsmith, Vancouver Island. (Macouri). Mouth of Rainy River, Lake of the Woods, Ont. (Dawson.) Oatmeal Falls, Rupert River, N. E. Ter.; Fort George, Hudson Bay. (J. M. Macoun.)
Var. obliquum, Milde, Bot. Monog., 109. Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 178.
B. obliquum, Muhl. in Willd., Sp. Pl., v., 63. Pursh, Fl.Am. Sept., ii., 655. Hook., Fl. Bor. - Am., ii., 265. Lawson, Can. Nat., i., 292.
Is much less frequently seen than the type. New Germany and Oaklands Lake, Mahone Bay, N.S. (Ball.) Dry, rich woods near the hop-yard, Belleville, Ont., and in sandy soil on Rice Lake Plains, Ont. (Macoun.) Sandy woodland, Niagara Falls, Ont. (Burgess.) London, Ont. (Saunders.) About Hudson Bay, York Factory, and on the "Height of Land,' in the Rocky Mountains. (Drummond.)
Var. dissectum, Milde, Bot. Monog., 110. Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 178.
B. dissectum, Spreng., Anleitg., 172 (1804.) Muhl. in Willd., Sp. PL, v. 64. Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., ii., 656.
Only recorded from Mount Uniacke and New Germany, N.S. (Ball.); Halifax, N.S. (Jack); and woods near the Whirlpool, Niagara Falls, Ont. (Macoun.)
(2975.) B. Virginianum, Swartz, Schrad. Journ., ii., 111. Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil., 448. Watt, Can. Nat., iv., 364.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect. iv., 179.
Botrypus Virginicus, Michx., Fl. Bor-Am., ii., 274 (1803.)
Botrychium Virginicum, Willd., Sp. Pl., v., 64 (1810). Gray, Man., 671,
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., ii., 656. Provancher, Fl. Can., 721. Lawson,
Can. Nat., i., 292.
A very abundant species, ranging from the Maritime Provinces to British Columbia, and northward to near the Arctic Circle. Pictou, N.S. (McKay.) Port Mulgrave, N.S. (Ball) Cape Blomidon, N.S. (Lawson.) North Mountain, Annapolis N.S., and Whycocogmah, Cape Breton. (Macoun & Burgess.) Truemanville, N.S. (H. True-man.) Bather common in New Brunswick. (Fowler.) Stc. Anne River, Gaspé, Que. (Porter.) Isle of Orleans, Que. (St. Cyr.) Rocky woods, Jupiter River, Auticosti, Que.; north shore of Lake Superior at Bed Bock, Nepigon, Thunder Bay, and up the Kaministiquia River, Ont.; Fort McLeod, Lat. 55°, and lower valley of Fraser River, B.C.; rather rare on grassy slopes and in open woods, from Laggan in the Rocky Mountains, Alta., to Donald in the Columbia Valley, B.C., along the line of the C. P. By.; Goldstream, Vancouver Island, and at Agassiz, B.C. (Macoun.) Very abundant in open, boggy woods, and in burnt woods of any kind, all around Lake Mistassini, N. E. Ter. (J. M. Macoun.) Lower slopes of South Koot-anie Pass, Rocky Mountains, Lat. 49°. (Dawson.) Oxford House, Keewatin. (McTavish.) Common in rich woods about Victoria, and in other parts of Vancouver Island, B.C. (Anderson.) One of the commonest ferns in western Quebec and south-western Ontario. (Macoun, Burgess, Fletcher, etc.) Banff, Rocky Mountain Park. . (J. Smith.)