& Baker, Syn. Fil., 272 (exclusive of vara, γ and δ.) Lastrea Filix-mas, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 76. Lawson, Can. Nat. i., 282;
Fern Fl. Can., 241.
Occurs in rocky woods and on open, rocky hillsides. Whycocogmah, Cape Breton, N.S. (Lindsay.) Aspey Bay, Lake Ainslie, and Cape Mabou Mountain. Cape Breton, N.S. (McKay.) Keswick Ridge, N.B. (Moser.) Daley's Wood, Richmond, N.B. (Hay.) Abundant and very luxuriant along the Gaspé coast, at Fox River, Que.; plentiful on the line of the C. P. Ry. on the lower slopes of Mount Mac-donald, near Bear Creek, summit of the Selkirk Range, B.C. (Macoun.) Among loose rocks under the limestone cliffs at the rear of Royston Park, Owen Sound, Ont., and about ten miles up the Georgian Bay, under the same range of cliffs. (Mrs. Roy.) British Columbia. (Lyall.)
Lastrea rigida, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 77. Lawson, Fern Fl. Can., 243.
Found growing in tufts among rocks on mountain sides. Mount Finlayson, near Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C. (Cowley, Anderson.) The southern Pacific coast form, var. argutum, presents, according to Prof. Eaton, no points of specific difference from ours, which is typical rigidum, except that its fronds are larger and broader.
Nephrodium marginale, Michx., Fl. Bor. - Am., ii., 267. Hook. & Baker,
Syn. Fil., 273. Lastrea marginalis, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 77. LawSon, Can. Nat., i., 281;
Fern Fl. Can., 242. Polystichum marginale, Watt, Can. Nat., iv., 363.
This species especially favours rocky, wooded ravines and hillsides, occurring abundantly from the Maritime Provinces to the Lake of the Woods, thence, but very sparingly, to the Rocky Mountains. Generally distributed throughout Nova Scotia. (Ball.) Rather common in New Brunswick. (Fowler.) Not rare in Prince Edward Island. (Bain.) Common in Quebec. (Provancher, McCord, Sheppard, St. Cyr, etc.) Very common in Ontario. (Lawson, Macoun, Billings, Burgess, etc.) Abundant in the Muskoka and Parry Sound districts of Ontario, and along the Dawson Road, Man. (Burgess.) Split Rock Portage, on the Nepigon River, Ont., and in Peace River Pass, Rocky Mountains, Lat. 56°. (Macoun.) The Saskatchewan. (Drummond.)
(3010.) A. spinulosum, Swartz, Schrad. Journ., ii., 38; Syn. Fil., 54. Hook., Fl. Bor. - Am., ii., 261. Provancher, Fl. Can., 719.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 206.
Nephrodium spinulosum, Desv., Ann. Linn., vi., 261. Hook. & Baker,
Syn. Fil., 275. Lastrea spinulosa, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 76. Lawson, Fern Fl. Can., 242.
A partially evergreen fern finding its favorite home in thick, especially damp, woods. It is frequent in the wooded districts of all our provinces and ranges northward to Alaska.
Var. intermedium, IX C. Eaton, Gray, Manual, Ed. v., 665. Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect. iv., 207.
Aspidium intermedium, Willd. J, Sp. Pl., v., 262. Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., ii., 663. Lastrea intermedia, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 77. Aspidium Americanum, Davenport, Am. Nat., xii., 714; Catal., 29.
This form, which prefers drier woods, has the same range as the type, but is most abundant in Eastern and Central Ontario.
Var. dilatatum, Hook., Brit. Fl. ed. I., 444. Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., ii., sect. iv., 207.
Aspidium dilatatum, Swartz, Syn. Fil., 420.
Lastrea dilatata, Presl., Tent. Pterid., 77. Lawson, Can. Nat., i., 281.
Lastrea spinulosa, Presl, var. dilatata, Lawson, Fern Fl. Can., 240.
Like the type, it extends from the Atlantic, through the Rocky Mountains, to the Pacific, prevailing most extensively in the Eastern Provinces and British Columbia, where, in places, it forms almost the whole undergrowth. Not very common in Ontario except about Lake Superior.
(3011.) A. Boottii, Tuckerman, Hovey's Mag. of Hort. and Bot., ix., 145.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Boy. Soc. Can., ii., sect. iv., 208.
A. spinulosum, var. Boottii, Gray, Man., Ed. ii., 598.
A. cristatum, var. uliginosum, Milde, Fil. Eur. et Atlant, 131.
Lastrea Boottii, Lawson, Fern Fl. Can., 241.
Our recorded stations for this fern, which is found in swamps and wet places in woods and thickets, are very few, but careful search would probably prove it to be less rare. Bellahill, thirteen miles from Halifax, and near Sackville Church, two and a half miles further up the old Windsor Road, N.S. (Jack.) Low forest glade, Kemptville, Ont. (Porter.) Swamp near the Grand Trunk Railway Station at Belleville, Ont., growing in the immediate vicinity of A., cristatum, var. Clintonianum and A. spinulosum. (Macoun.) Hamilton, Ont. (Logic) With A. cristatum, in a cedar swamp, London, Ont. (Burgess.)
(3012.) A. fragrans, Swartz, Syn. Fil., 51. Hook., Fl. Bor. - Am., ii, 261.
Macoun & Burgess, Trans. Boy. Soc. Can., ii., sect, iv., 208.
Polysiichum fragrans, Ledeb., Fl. Ross., iv., 514. Watt, Can. Nat., iv., 363. Nephrodium fragrans, Rich., App. Frankl. Journ., 753. Hook. & Baker,
Syn. Fil., 275. Lastrea fragrans, Presl, Tent. Pterid., 76. Lawson, Can. Nat., i., 283;
Fern Fl. Can., 243.
Found in the crevices of shaded cliffs, and on mossy rocks, especially near cascades, from Nova Scotia to the Rocky Mountains and northward to the Arctic Circle. Hartley Water-fall, Pirate Harbour, Strait of Canso, N.S. (Ball.) Clefts of rocks at the Railway Tunnel, Besti-gouche, N.B. (Fowler.) Dalhousie, N.B. (Fletcher.) Saguenay River, Que. (Watt.) Hemmingford, Que. (Goode.) Perpendicular rocks at the Falls of Ste. Anne des Monts River, and along the Telegraph Road, Gaspé, Que.; Pic Island, and along cliffs on the shore of Thunder Bay above that island, McKay's Mountain, Thunder Cape, and Bed Bock Station, C. P. By., north shore of Lake Superior, Ont.; very abundant on trap rocks on the upper part of Nepigon River and all around Lake Nepigon, being the common fern in that region; Dawson Road, Ont.; Peace River Pass in the Rocky Mountains, above Hudson's Hope in the Canyon, Lat 56° 12'. (Macoun.) Crevices of rocks on Moon River, Muskoka, Ont. (Burgess.) East coast of Hudson Bay, Cape Chudleigh and Cape Prince of Wales, Hudson Strait. (R. Bell.) Bocks about Chipeywan, Athabasca District. (Traill.) Great Bear Lake, N. W. Ter. (Hooker.) The Saskatchewan to the Arctic Sea and Islands. (Richardson, Parry.) Francis River, N.W.T. (Dawson.)