Local and confined to the sea margin this plant is apparently not represented in any early deposits in Great Britain, but is recorded from the Oak Zone in Gothland. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. and Central Asia, as far east as the Himalayas.

In Great Britain it is found in W. Cornwall, E. Kent, E. Suffolk, E. and W. Norfolk, Anglesea, N. Lines, S. E. Yorks, N.E. Yorks, Dumfries, Wigtown, Ayr, Renfrew, Forfar, N. Aberdeen, Main Argyll, \Y. Ross, or from York to Kent and Sussex. It is common and only naturalized in Scotland and Ireland.

This is one of the peculiarly characteristic maritime species growing on sandy shores, where it is a salt-lover and a dry-soil type. It forms a natural defence by helping to bind the sand together. Doubtless this reason has caused it to be planted in some spots where it was not formerly present.

This is a compact prickly shrub, which is much branched and generally erect. The leaves are linear lance-shaped, silvery, with a furrow in the centre, limp, alternate, dullish green above. After flowering they elongate. There are red scales on the underside of the leaf.

Sea Buckthorn is a dioecious plant, with axillary minute male flowers in clusters, the sepals broadly oblong. The flowers appear with the young leaves. The female flowers are solitary. The fruit is a berry, orange, enclosed in the calyx, membranous, with oblong seeds.

The plant is 1-8 ft. high. It flowers in May. The Sea Buckthorn is a shrub.

The plant is dioecious, the male flowers minute in axillary clusters, the female solitary. The filaments are short and the anthers yellow. The flowers are pollinated by the wind. The bracteoles form a hood over the male flowers to protect them from the rain, separating when it is dry, allowing pollen to be blown away by the wind.

The utricle is orange-red when ripe, and probably principally dispersed by birds.

A beetle, Haltica tamaricis, a moth, Gelechia hippophaella, three Homoptera, Cixius stigmaticus, C. remotus, Psylla hippophaes, are found upon it. A Hawk Moth, with large orange caterpillars, feeds on it, resembling the yellow fruits.

Hippophae, Dioscorides, is from the Greek hippos, horse, phao, shine; rhamnoides means buckthorn-like.

The plant is called Sea Buckthorn, Sallow Thorn, Willow-thorn, Wirwivvle, Wyrvivle.

Essential Specific Characters: 273. Hippophae rhamnoides, L. - Dioecious shrub, spinose, leaves linear-lanceolate, silvery, male flowers in catkins, female solitary, berries scarlet.