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British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol2-4



The flowers which grow in our fields and meadows are intermediate in character in many ways between (I) those which grow near (or in) water, and require moist conditions, that is, hydrophytes, and (2) those that need dry-soil conditions and grow on the highlands, that is, xero-phytes. Hence they are called mesophytes...

TitleBritish Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol2-4
AuthorA. R. Horwood
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1919
Copyright1919, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonA British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts
-Plates In Colour - Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows
The flowers which grow in our fields and meadows are intermediate in character in many ways between (I) those which grow near (or in) water, and require moist conditions, that is, hydrophytes, and (2)...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate I
-Key To Plate I
A New British Flora Their soil requirements are also of a different type, striking a mean between those of very moist and of very dry conditions. Accordingly the plants included under Sections II -...
-Upright Meadow Crowfoot (Ranunculus Acris, L.)
The deposits in which seeds of this species have been found are post-Roman. It occurs in the Arctic and Cool Temperate Zones in Arctic Europe and N. Asia, and has been introduced into America. It is f...
-Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus Ficaria, L.)
Owing to its soft carpels, perhaps, this plant has not been found fossil. It is confined to the Arctic and Warm Temperate Zone, occurring in Arctic Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. It is found ...
-Lady's Smock (Cardamine Pratensis, L.)
Nothing is known of the early distribution or occurrence of this plant. To-day it is found in the Arctic and Northern Temperate Zone, in Arctic and Subarctic regions. A closely-allied species has been...
-Dame's Violet (Hesperis Matronalis, L.)
There is no instance of the seeds being found in Glacial or earlier deposits. The plant is met with to-day in Europe and temperate Asia. This plant is always an escape from gardens, and is not even re...
-Ragged Robin (Lychnis Flos-cuculi, L.)
This plant is found in older Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman deposits. It is confined to the Cold North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe and Siberia. The Ragged Robin is found in every county...
-Key To Plate II
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate II
The visitors are Hymenoptera (Apidae), Lepidoptera, Diptera (Syrphidae). Like other species Ragged Robin is dis-persed by the wind. The capsule opens above, and allows animals or the wind t...
-Meadow Crane's Bill (Geranium Pratense, L.)
The seed-bearing beds have yielded no testimony as yet as to the antiquity (or otherwise) of this fine plant. It is found in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones, in Arctic Europe, and Siberia. It is ...
-Meadow Crane's Bill
The Meadow Crane's Bill is often 3 or 4 ft. high. The flowers may be found from June to September. The plant is perennial, increasing by division of the root. This well-known wild flower exhibits adm...
-Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense, L.)
No traces of this have been discovered where seeds have been found in Glacial beds. It is spread over the Northern Temperate Zone, in Arctic Europe, North Africa, North and West Asia, India, and has b...
-Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense, L.). Continued
I'll seek a four-leaved clover In all the fairy dells, And if I find the charmed leaf - Oh, how I'll weave my spells! Two-leaved clover is lucky, and gathered with a formula: A clover, a clover of t...
-Hop Trefoil (Trifolium Procumbens, L.)
The present range of Hop Trefoil - for this is only known in the present-day flora - is the North Temperate Zone of Europe, North Africa, North and West Asia, and it is also an introduction in North A...
-Key To Plate III
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows Plate III
Likewise it frequents natural banks and slopes, being accustomed to dry conditions, and is largely a dry-soil lover. Photo. Flatters & Garnett - Hop Trefoil (Trifolium procumbens, L.) Th...
-Meadow-sweet (Spiraea Ulmaria, L.)
Beds of Preglacial, Interglacial, Neolithic, and Roman age (as at Silchester) have afforded seeds of this species. It is found in the North Temperate and Arctic regions of Arctic Europe, Asia Minor, a...
-Cinquefoil (Potentilla Reptans, L.)
Unlike the Tormentil this plant has not been discovered in any early deposits. Its distribution in the Northern Temperate Zone is confined to Europe from Gothland southward, N. and W. Asia, Himalayas,...
-Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla Vulgaris, L.)
No trace of Lady's Mantle is found in the rocks. It is an Arctic plant found in the North Temperate and Arctic regions in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, Kashmir, Greenland, Labrador. In Great Britain ...
-Key To Plate IV
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate IV
The small amount of honey makes it unattractive to insects with a long proboscis. It is not usually self-pollinated, but the partial separation of the sexes makes for cross-pollination. It i...
-Great Burnet (Poterium Officinale, A. Gray)
This common plant is an ancient one, having been found in Preglacial, Early Glacial, Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic deposits. It is a Northern Temperate and Arctic Zone plant found in Arct...
-Wild Carrot (Daucus Carota, L.)
So far there have been no traces of the Wild Carrot found in early deposits. In the North Temperate Zone it is found in Europe, N. Africa, N. Asia, as far east as India. It has been introduced into N....
-Devil's Bit Scabious (Scabiosa Succisa, L.)
In Interglacial beds at West Wittering seeds of the Devil's Bit Scabious have been met with. It is found to-day throughout the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, Siberia, and N. Afr...
-Daisy (Bellis Perennis, L.)
Found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe generally at the present time, there is nothing to indicate that the Daisy is an ancient plant in Great Britain. The Daisy is ubiquitous, growing in every p...
-Key To Plate V
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate V
Dicky Daisy, Ewe-gowan, Gowan, May Gowan, Gowlan, Mary Gow-lan, Hen and Chickens, Herb Margaret, March Daisy, Margaret's Herb, Marguerite, Maudlinwort, Mother of thousands, Silver Penny, Pri...
-Milfoil (Achillea Millefolium, L.)
This common Composite is found throughout the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, Temperate and cold North Asia, the Himalayas, and N. America, but is not found in any early deposits. I...
-Ox-eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, L.)
Fruits of the Marguerite, so welcome a sign of summer in our fields, have been found at Silchester. The distribution of this common plant is limited to the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic E...
-Knapweed (Centaurea Nigra, L.)
Knapweed is well distributed at the present day throughout Europe. In N. America it is an introduction. No traces of it occur in any ancient deposit, in spite of its being so common to-day. It is fou...
-Long-rooted Cat's Ear (Hypochaeris Radicata, L.)
Like the Hawkweeds, except the Mouse-ear Hawkweed, this is apparently quite a modern Composite. At the present day it is found in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, and N. Africa. In Great Britain...
-Key To Plate VI
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate VI
The flowerheads are yellow, borne on branched scapes, which are thickened just below the flowerheads, and nearly erect. The whorl of leaf-like organs is shorter than the florets, which are o...
-Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale, Weber)
The Dandelion, which affords so dear a recollection of youthful days and clock-blowing, has been native in Britain since very early times. It is found, in fact, in beds of Interglacial, Late Glacial, ...
-Goat's Beard (Tragopogon Pratense, L.)
This plant is apparently quite a modern one, known only from its present distribution, Europe, N. and W. Asia as far east as the Himalayas. It is found in Great Britain in the Peninsula, Channel, Tha...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows
Goat's Beard is very largely a clay plant, and addicted to a clay soil, but will also grow on sandy loam, especially on cultivated ground. It is abundant on Triassic, Liassic, and Glacial clay and san...
-Cowslip (Primula Veris, L.)
The Cowslip ranges farther east than the Primrose in the N. Temperate Zone, where it is found in Europe, Siberia, W. Asia, N. Africa, but, like it, is unknown so far in early deposits. In Great Brita...
-Cowslip
Cowslap, Cowslek, Cowslip, Cowslip Primrose, Cowslop, Cow's-mouth, Cow-stripling, Cow-stropple, Crewel, Culverkeys, Fairy Cups, Galligaskins, Gaskins, Herb Paralysy, Herb Peter, Ladykeys, Lady's Finge...
-Yellow Rattle (Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L.)
Though one of the Arctic plants. Yellow Rattle is not represented at present in ancient deposits. It ranges throughout the Arctic and Temperate X. zones in Arctic Europe. X. Asia, and X. America. It i...
-Key To Plate VII
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows - Plate VII
The flowers are yellow, borne in loose spikes on very short flower stalks, with an expanded, flattened, smooth calyx, with 4 equal teeth, pale-green, not falling. The corolla is gaping, the upper ...
-Self-heal (Prunella Vulgaris, L.)
This pretty Arctic species has been preserved in the early deposits, in Neolithic beds at Edinburgh, and Roman deposits at Silchester. It is found at present in the Arctic and Temperate Zones in Arcti...
-Purple Orchis (Orchis Mascula, L.)
Like other Orchids this is known only from its modern distribution, which is the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and W. Siberia. It is found in every county in Great Britain, except Glamor...
-Spotted Orchid (Orchis Maculata, L.)
Though an upland Arctic type this Orchid is not found in early deposits. It is distributed throughout North Temperate and Arctic Europe, except in Greece and in N. and W. Asia. This species occurs in...
-Purple Crocus (Crocus Officinalis, Huds.)
The Purple Crocus is a southern plant found in Mid and S. Europe, and not earlier in the N. Temperate Zone. It is naturalized in Notts and Middlesex, and a few other places in England and Ireland. Li...
-Section III. Flowers Of The Cornfields - Flowers Of The Cornfields
The flowers that follow man and the plough are perhaps no more artificial than those of the fields and meadows previously described, which have been equally disturbed by agricultural operations follow...
-Mouse-tail (Myosurus Minimus, L.)
No trace of the Mouse-tail has been found in beds earlier than recent accumulations. It is a plant of the Warm Temperate Zone, found in Europe, W. Asia, N. Africa, and has been introduced in ballast i...
-Key To Plate VIII
-Flowers Of The Cornfields - Plate VIII
-Corn Buttercup (Ranunculus Arvensis, L.)
No trace of achenes of this pest to the farmer has been found in Pre- or Post-glacial beds. It frequents the Warm Temperate Zone, including Europe, Temperate Asia, India, North Africa. It is more or ...
-Larkspur (Delphinium Ajacis, Reichb.)
Larkspur is unknown in a fossil state. It belongs to the Warm Temperate Zone, growing in Central and S. Europe, North Africa, and has been introduced into the United States of America. It was regarded...
-Common Red Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas, L.)
Unlike the Opium Poppy and Long Rough-headed Poppy, both of which appear in Neolithic beds (when they were cultivated), this species is not found so early. It is found in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia a...
-Fumitory (Earth-smoke) (Fumaria Officinalis, L.)
Seeds have been found with flax seeds and weeds of cultivation in Neolithic deposits. Fumitory is confined to the Warm Temperate Zone, and is found in Europe, X. Africa, W. Asia, and has been introduc...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields
Earth-smoke may be recognized by its finely-divided bluish-green foliage, simulating umbellifers, or Hymenophyllous ferns, its versi-colorous, purple and white flowers, nearly round fruits, with two s...
-Charlock (Brassica Arvensis, O. Kuntze)
Widely dispersed as it is, no seeds of Charlock have yet been found in Pre- or Post-glacial beds. It is found in the Warm Temperate Zone, in Europe, N. Africa, X. and W. Asia, as far as the Himalayas,...
-Key To Plate IX
-Flowers Of The Cornfields - Plate IX
Brassica is Latin for cabbage, and arvensis means belonging to arable land. It is called Charlock; Brassies (from the Latin which was used in old leases, in which were conditions as to its being ...
-Candytuft (Iberis Amara, L.)
No instance of its occurrence before the present day is known as yet. It is found in the Warm Temperate Zone to-day in Europe to the south of Belgium. It is common in Great Britain, occurring in Somer...
-Heart's Ease (Viola Arvensis. Murr.)
This plant has not been found in seed-bearing beds. The Marsh Violet, however, is found in beds ranging from the Pre-glacial to the Neolithic period. It is to-day found in the Temperate and Arctic Zon...
-Heart's Ease
The name Face-and-Hood is in reference to the markings of the petals, which bear some sort of resemblance to a face, the limb of the flower being often dark and hood-like. In Midsummer-Night's Drea...
-White Campion (Lychnis Alba, Mill.)
This plant has been met with in Neolithic beds at Fife. It is found to-day in the Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, Western Asia. It has been introduced in the United States. In Great Bri...
-Corn Cockle (Lychnis Githago, Scop.)
As yet the Corn Cockle has not been met with in any Glacial or other early deposits. It is found in the Temperate Zone in Europe, Siberia, Western Asia, as far as Persia. It has been introduced into t...
-Spurrey (Spergula Arvensis, L,)
Seeds of Spurrey have been found near Edinburgh in beds of Neolithic age. It is found to-day in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones, in Arctic Europe, North Africa, West Asia to N.W. Asia, and has...
-Flax (Linum Usitatissimum, L.)
This plant is one of the most anciently cultivated plants, found in Neolithic and Roman beds in Britain, Capsules and seeds of flax are common at Redhill, suggesting the bundles were steeped there. It...
-Key To Plate X
-Flowers Of The Cornfields - Plate X
Photo. H Irving - Flax (Linum usitatissimum, L.) Flax is called Lint Bells, Lint Bennels, Blaebows, Flix, Lin, Line, Lint, Lint-bow, Vlix. A man in the flax trade in Dorset is called a linman. ...
-Alsike Clover (Trifolium Hybridum, L.)
Like other Leguminosae of quite modern date, the range of this introduced plant is included in the North Temperate Zone, in Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. It is everywhere an introduction, be...
-Shepherd's Needle (Scandix Pecten-veneris, L.)
The Shepherd's Needle is known from its present distribution throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, W. Asia, as far as the N.W. of India. In Great Britain it is not found in Mid ...
-Fool's Parsley (Aethusa Cynapium, L.)
The antiquity of this umbellifer, in spite of its association with cultivated land to-day, is shown by its occurrence in Neolithic beds in Hants, and Roman deposits at Edinburgh. It is found in the T...
-Photo. Messrs. Flatters & Garnett Field Madder (Sherardia Arvensis, L.)
A little fungus, Puccinia bullata, attacks it. No insects infest it. Aethusa, Linnaeus, is from the Greek aitho, I burn, in allusion to the hot taste, and Cynapium, Rivinus, from kuon, kunos, dog, an...
-Field Madder (Sherardia Arvensis, L.)
Found to-day (with no earlier records) in Europe, North Africa, and Siberia, Field Madder is a North Temperate Zone species. It is found in every part of Great Britain, except in Main Argyle, N. Ebude...
-Lamb's Lettuce (Valerianella Olitoria, Poll.)
Seeds of the Lamb's Lettuce have been found in Interglacial beds at West Wittering. The plant is found throughout the Temperate Northern Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and Western Asia. In Great Britain i...
-Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum Segetum, L.)
In spite of its being addicted to cultivated ground, and its suspicious status as a native, Corn Marigold is found in Neolithic beds near Edinburgh. Its present distribution is Europe, North Africa, a...
-Key To Plate XI
-Flowers Of The Cornfields - Plate XI
The achenes are dispersed by the wind, the fruit being ribbed and winged, though in the case of ray florets they are not winged. Corn Marigold is more or less strictly a sand plant, growing on sa...
-Corn-flower Or Bluebottle (Centaurea Cyanus, L.)
Though the more native Knapweed is only known from its present-day distribution in Europe, West Siberia, N.W. India, being an introduction in X. America, the Corn-flower is found in Neolithic beds at ...
-Corn-Flower Or Bluebottle
There are few florets in the disk or centre, and the anther-cylinders project at distant points. On an insect touching them the anther-stalks contract, and the cylinder is depressed. A mass of pollen ...
-Corn Sow-thistle (Sonchus Arvensis, L.)
Though usually connected with corn-growing, and so modern, this plant can claim some antiquity, having been found in Lacustrine deposits of Neolithic age. To-day it is found in Arctic Europe, North Af...
-Venus's Looking Glass (Legousia Hybrida, Delarbre)
This local elusive species is found south of Holland, and in N. Africa in the North Temperate Zone. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula province, except in N. Devon, and in the Channel provi...
-Venus's Looking Glass
Venus's Looking Glass is more common in the south and east, because it is best suited by a chalky or calcareous soil, and this type of rock soil is confined to those districts. It grows amid the corn ...
-Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis Arvensis, L.)
This pretty trailing cornfield weed is apparently quite a modern plant in this country, not having been found in ancient deposits. At the present day it is found in Europe and N. Africa, Siberia, West...
-Field Bugloss (Lycopsis Arvensis, L.)
Conspicuous and common in the cornfields this plant is found today (and not in any early deposits) in Europe, W. Siberia, W. Asia, as far as N.W. India. It has been introduced into the United States. ...
-Corn Gromwell (Lithospermum Arvense, L.)
Corn Gromwell is found in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, W. Asia, as far as N.W. India, in the North Temperate Zone, and has been introduced into the United States. It is unknown in any early deposits. I...
-Key To Plate XII
-Flowers Of The Cornfields - Plate XII
The plant is normally quite 2 ft. in height. It flowers in May and June. It is annual, propagated by seeds. The honey, which is scanty, is protected by hairs and secreted at the base of the lube ne...
-Small Snapdragon (Antirrhinum Orontium, L.)
This is a southern type of plant, and does not occur in early deposits. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone, South of Denmark, North Africa, N. and W. Asia, N.W. India, and is introduced in N. Americ...
-Ivy-leaved Speedwell (Veronica Hederaefolia, L.)
Familiar to us from its almost universal occurrence on cultivated ground this plant is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia, and the Himalayas. It is unknown in seed-bearing de...
-Hemp Nettle (Galeopsis Tetrahit, L.)
This plant is found in Late Glacial beds at Twickenham, Neolithic and Roman beds deposits at Silchester. At Twickenham it was associated with Reindeer, Bison, and Bos longifrons, but not extinct anima...
-Wild Oat (Avena Fatua, L.)
The Wild Oat is confined to the North Temperate Zone of Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, and N.W. India. It is not known in any early plant beds. In Great Britain the Wild Oat is found in all English count...
-Darnel (Lolium Temulentum, L.)
At the present day this pernicious plant is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, W. Siberia, and India, and has been introduced in N. America. Watson states that it has been found i...
-Yellow Horned Poppy (Glaucium Flavum, Crantz)
No seeds of this plant have been detected in Glacial beds. It is a plant of the Warm Temperate Zone, common to Europe, N. Africa, and Western Asia. It has been introduced in the United States. It is a...
-Key To Plate XIII
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast - Plate XIII
A yellow juice is afforded by the plant, which is poisonous and disagreeable, and has been said to cause madness. It is grown in gardens, and is a showy annual. Essential Specific Characters: 19....
-Common Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia Officinalis. L.)
The seeds of Common Scurvy Grass have never been discovered in Glacial beds up to the present. It is confined to the Arctic and sub-Arctic shores of Europe. X. Asia. and N. America, and the Alps of W....
-Woad (Isatis Tinctoria, L.)
In spite of its reputed use by the early Britons no trace of this plant has been found even in Neolithic or Roman deposits. It is found throughout Europe and in N. Asia. The ancient Britons are usuall...
-Sea Kale (Crambe Maritima, L.)
There is, as usual in the case of most succulent plants, no instance of the occurrence of this plant or its seeds in Glacial, earlier, or later deposits. It is found generally from the coasts of Finla...
-Sea Rocket (Cakile Maritima, Scop.)
Though this plant is not found in any deposit in England it occurs in the Oak Zone abroad. It is confined to the North Temperate Zone, and found in Europe, N. Africa, and Ireland. It is absent from S....
-Sea Campion (Silene Maritima, With.)
This plant is found in Interglacial beds in Sussex. At the present day it ranges from the shores of Arctic Europe, from Italy westward to the Canaries, and northward to Norway and Finland. It may be f...
-Sea Purslane (Arenaria Peploides, L.)
This maritime species has been found in the Interglacial deposits of Hants. It is found in the Arctic and North Temperate Zones on the shores of Western Europe, from the Arctic regions to Spain, and i...
-Key To Plate XIV
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast - Plate XIV
The Sea Purslane is a sine qua non, as it were, of the flora that one meets with on most sea-coasts. It grows on every sandy beach, being a sand plant like the majority of the species of this grou...
-Tamarisk (Tamarix Gallica, L.)
This shrub has never been found fossil, but, even if it were native, it is unlikely that it will be preserved, as it rarely produces seed now in this country. The Northern Temperate Zone is its home, ...
-Photoo. H. Irving - Tamarisk (Tamarix Galliai, L.)
So called from its native place in Spain, Tamaris, the Tamarisk is an evergreen shrub which is planted on account of its predilection for the sea. It is woody, erect, and possesses slender, feathery b...
-Sea Holly (Eryngium Maritimum, L.)
The distribution of Sea Holly to-day (as far as our knowledge goes) is limited to the North Temperate Zone in Europe, and N. Africa. In Great Britain it is absent from West Sussex, Northumberland, Wig...
-Samphire (Crithmum Maritimum, L.)
The coasts of Europe to the south of France, and those of N. Africa, or the Temperate Zone, mark the present distribution of this plant, which is unknown in earlier times. It is found in Great Britain...
-Absinth (Artemisia Absinthium, L.)
Absinth is not found in early deposits, but is confined at the present day to the North Temperate Zone, in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, the Himalayas, and North America. In Great Britain it occu...
-Sea Lavender (Limonium Vulgare, Mill.)
The Temperate (Northern) Zone throughout Europe, N. Africa, and N. America marks the limit of the range of Sea Lavender to-day, no earlier records of its occurrence being known. In Great Britain it is...
-Thrift (Statice Maritima, Mill.)
The pretty tufted Thrift is found in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, Asia, N. America, and also in Chili. While thus a northern plant it has not been found to belong to any o...
-Key To Plate XV
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast - Plate XV
Like Sea Lavender it is attacked by a fungus, Uromyces limonii. A Thysanopterous insect, Phloeothrips Statices, and three moths, a Clearwing, Sesia musciformis, Sericoris littoralis, Gelechia biz...
-Sea Milkwort (Glaux Maritima, L.)
This diminutive plant with its delicate flowers is represented in ancient deposits in Interglacial beds at West Wittering, Sussex. It is found in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Euro...
-Centaury (Centaurium Umbellatum, Gilib.)
This maritime and inland plant is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, South of Scotland, N. Africa, and has been introduced in North America. It is unknown in any early deposits. In Great Bri...
-Seaside Bindweed (Calystegia Soldanella, Br.)
This plant is not found in any ancient deposits. In the North Temperate Zone to-day it is found in Europe, South of Belgium, N. Africa, W. Asia, and the S. Temperate regions. In Britain it is found ar...
-Sea Plantain (Plantago Maritima, L.)
Though an Arctic plant this maritime species, like some other maritime plants, is not represented in any ancient deposits. It is found to-day in Arctic and Temperate Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia,...
-Saltwort (Salsola Kali. L.)
This is quite unrepresented as a maritime species in early deposits. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, X. and S. Africa, and X. and \Y. Asia, India, X. and S. America, Australia. In G...
-Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides, L.)
Local and confined to the sea margin this plant is apparently not represented in any early deposits in Great Britain, but is recorded from the Oak Zone in Gothland. It is found in the N. Temperate Zon...
-Common Sea Rush (Juncus Maritimus, Lam.)
Few of the maritime species are preserved in seed-bearing beds, partly because no sections present themselves, and partly because the sea line in still earlier times was different, England being joine...
-Key To Plate XVI
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast - Plate XVI
The plant is 4 ft. high. It flowers in August. Sea Rush is perennial and propagated by seed. The stigma matures before the anthers, and self-pollination is thus rendered impossible. As in the oth...
-Grass Wrack (Zostera Marina, L.)
This is not known in early deposits, though Zostera-like foliage occurs in estuarine deposits, but it is found in plant beds in S. Sweden in Gothland. To-day its distribution is around the North Tempe...
-Sea Club Rush (Scirpus Maritimus, L.)
Found in Neolithic deposits at Southampton docks, like other maritime but Arctic species, this is represented in plant beds of Glacial and later age. It is found to-day in N. Temperate and Arctic Euro...
-Sand Sedge (Carex Arenaria. L.)
Essential Specific Characters: 321. Scirpus maritimus, L. - Stem caespitose, leaves numerous, furrowed, linear, spikelets in cyme, many, brown. This common maritime sedge is found in the North Temper...
-Marram Grass (Ammophila Arenaria, Link.)
This littoral grass is found in the North Temperate region in Europe and N. Africa, not having yet been found in any Glacial plant beds. In Great Britain it is found on the coast of all maritime count...
-Hedgehog Grass (Cynosurus Echinatus, L.)
This common maritime grass is found in the North Temperate Zone in Mid and S. Europe, N. Africa, and West Asia, but not in early plant beds. The typical station for this species is in the Channel Isla...
-Key To Plate XVII
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast - Plate XVII
Photo. H. Irving - Squirrel Tail Grass (Hordeum maritimum, L.) Essential Specific Characters: 337. Cynosurus echinatus, L. - Stem erect, flowers in dense raceme, the awns as long as the palea, ...
-Seaside Manna Grass (Glyceria Maritima, Mert. Et Koch)
(See illustration on p. 211.) In common with other maritime plants our only knowledge of this grass is obtained from its present-day distribution in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberi...
-Rushy Wheat Grass (Agropyron Junceum, Beauv.)
This is a common maritime grass, found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and N. America. It is found in every maritime county in Great Britain, except S. Lines, Westmorland, Kirkcudbright...
-Squirrel Tail Grass (Hordeum Maritimum, Huds.)
(See illustration, on p. 217) The distribution of this universal maritime grass is from Denmark southwards, in Europe, and in N. Africa. In Great Britain it is found throughout the Peninsula province...
-Lyme Grass (Elymus Arenarius, L.)
Lyme Grass is not found in any early plant beds. It is distributed in Europe, N. Asia, and N. America in the Temperate Zone. In Great Britain it is found in Somerset, Dorset, S. Hants, Sussex, E. Suff...
-Some General Hints And Notes - Section II - Fields And Meadows. Accessibility Of The Meadows
A meadow or pasture is perhaps for field work the most accessible type or habitat for purposes of teaching botany first-hand. As a rule, in most parts of the country permission need not be obtained fo...
-Meadows Once Common Land
Originally meadows and pastures were forest lands. Gradually, owing to one cause or another, these forests were cut down. A great part of the land not under cultivation or planted with trees was commo...
-The Expansiveness Of The Fields
What will at once strike the observant mind is the open character of meadow lands as a rule, if one ignores the boundary hedges. A stretch of meadows unrelieved by woodland or water appeals at once to...
-Lowland And Upland Meadows
The surface of the country, once perfectly level, has become extremely diversified, owing to various causes, such as disturbance of the crust, denudation and river development. We therefore find that...
-Northern And Southern Meadows
As we travel northwards from the English Channel to the north of Scotland a great change is to be noticed in the character of the meadows and pastures. This is due not only to the difference of soil i...
-Wet And Dry Meadows
A very few simple observations will enable the pupil to discover that meadows differ very greatly in the relative water content. It will be seen very readily that the influence of a cold clay soil is ...
-Slope And Aspect
If the relation of the meadows and pastures to the drainage of the country be studied, it will be seen that streams and rivers are arranged upon a definite system. In many cases the streams may be fou...
-Meadow And Pasture
Though it is a very well known fact to those brought up in the country that a meadow differs greatly from a pasture, yet the townsman treats both alike as fields, and save at haytime rarely distinguis...
-Cultivation And Its Effects
Subsequent to the cutting down of the continuous aboriginal forests and the making of clearings the country was crudely drained and cultivated. A great deal of this had been already done at the time o...
-Modern Meadow Plants
The origin of the present meadow plants must be sought in the far past. Apart from the derivation of the vast bulk of meadow and pasture plants in the way described, i.e. after tree felling, cultivati...
-Meadow Habitats
By referring to the summary of the British Flora, in Vol. V, it will be seen that in addition to the score or more of common plants described in detail in this volume, there are over 150 other British...
-The Grass Habit, Etc
In studying meadow and pasture vegetation one outstanding feature will soon make itself apparent, namely, the prevalence of what may be best described as the grass habit of the vast majority of the pl...
-Diversity And Brilliance Of The Colours Of Meadow Plants
A noticeable feature of the plants of open meadows and pastures is the predominance of brilliant flowers, and these are not less remarkable again for their diversity of colour. Though we cannot defin...
-Height Of Meadow Plants
An interesting feature of meadow vegetation is the resemblance it presents to the types of plants to be distinguished in a woodland. These consist of a tree zone, the highest, with a lower stratum of ...
-Flowering Of Meadow Plants
The openness of the meadow as a whole causes the flowering of meadow and pasture plants to be less restricted to certain seasons than in the case of woods where more sun (later in the summer) is neede...
-Insects And Meadow Plants
As has been pointed out, the meadow is the home, as it were, of insect life, and this has a great significance, for by the agency of insects the plants of the meadows are better able to cope with the ...
-Dispersal Of Fruits And Seeds Of Meadow Plants
The points first noted, the expansive-ness and openness of the meadows, will here again, as in the last section, be shown to have great significance in the life of the meadow plants when the question ...
-Drainage And Its Effect Upon Meadows
Not less profound than the effect of tree-felling and cultivation upon the original forest land has been that of drainage. Apart from the conversion of the forests into corn lands by the ridge-and-fur...
-General Methods Of Survey
(a) The Field Itself. - The author has recently had to undertake the survey of a particular district upon ecological lines, and has found that the introduction of a novel plan of work has been the mos...
-Section III. Cornfields. Similarity Of Cornfields To Fields
The cornfield characters are in many respects similar to those of grass fields, meadow, or pasture. Within the term cornfields are included all types of arable or cultivated land which are subjected t...
-The Impermanence Of Cornfields
There is a marked contrast between the longevity of the meadow and the cornfield. In the former there is but a slight disturbance of the main conditions when a meadow is converted into pasture, or vic...
-Denizen And Colonist Flora
The plants which are found in cornfields are a motley assemblage. Some are pure aliens and of merely sporadic occurrence, as Larkspur, Gold of Pleasure, Venus's Looking Glass. Charlock is a denizen. C...
-The Limits Of Cultivation
Several reasons determine the limits between which cultivated plants will grow and thrive. These in general are similar to those which regulate the distribution of all plants, but they apply in a more...
-Arable Land Mainly Confined To Lowlands
Apart from the limits of cultivation owing to altitude, there are some considerations which tend to confine the distribution of the cereals, and hence cornfield plants, as a rule, to the lowlands. In...
-Difference Between The Plants Of The Hedges And Furrows
The cornfield as a complete whole is a composite type of vegetation. Apart from the portion of each field under cultivation, there is usually a grassy strip along the borders, varying in width accordi...
-The Affinity Of Cornfield Plants For Waste Ground
The soil conditions of the cornfield exhibit a striking similarity to those of the waste place and kindred habitats. It might be in some ways better to combine the two. But there is in the first place...
-The Grass Habit In The Cornfield
If the growth habits of the plants are studied it will be seen that though there are three zones of plant societies, as in woods and meadows, and though several types of habit may be distinguished, ye...
-Absence Of Brilliant Colours In The Cornfields
One usually associates a cornfield with masses of scarlet poppies or sulphur-yellow Charlock. In favoured localities a touch of puce or magenta is lent by the Corn Cockle, but this plant seldom grows ...
-Late Flowering Of The Cornfield Weeds
The majority of the cornfield plants do not flower so early as those in the meadows. There are, of course, as in all different types of vegetation, natural or artificial cycles of flowering. For each ...
-Annual Character Of Plants
One feature of the cornfield is its ephemeral character. This lack of permanence of conditions makes itself felt upon the plants associated with the corn itself. It can hardly be otherwise. For the ti...
-Relative Absence Of Insects
Emphasis has been laid upon the close ranks of the corn itself and the struggle of the plants towards the light. The cornfield is indeed extremely inaccessible for all classes of animal life; attentio...
-Difficulties Of Natural Seed Dispersal
The groups of plants found in cornfields are as a whole deficient in adaptation for seed dispersal by animal agency; for except the Field Bu-gloss, Corn Buttercup, and Wild Oat, there are none which a...
-Man's Agency
In a cornfield one is met at every turn by artificial agencies. Not least is the direct intervention of man causing the distribution of cornfield weeds. The cultural operations themselves are so far-r...
-Easier Struggle For Existence
There are two distinct features of the cornfield that are compensative in effect in relation to each other. The struggle of the cornfield weeds amongst the corn towards the light has already been emph...
-Effect Of Dressing, Etc
A cornfield or allied cultivated tract is unique amongst botanical habitats in the fact that the soil is enriched each year with some form of manure or dressing. Normally no other type of vegetation r...
-Effect Of The Soil
The conditions required for the effective growth of a cereal crop are light but fertile soils, which are dry and warm. The soils that furnish these conditions are mainly sandy loams, clayey loams, and...
-Shepherd's Needle, Fool's Parsley, Lamb's Lettuce, Cornflower, And Blue Sherardia
Dry-Soil Types The preponderance of the sand plants in cornfields owing to the conditions required by cereals, such as lightness and dryness of soils, is a well-marked feature, which is explained by ...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast
Zonal Character of the Coastal Vegetation. The vegetation of the sea-coast differs from every other type of vegetation in that it is entirely restricted to the junction of the sea with the land. This ...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 2
Exposure Of The Sea-Coast Except upon lofty hills and mountains no type of vegetation is so much exposed as that of the sea-coast. It is this factor which causes the vegetation to have so distinctive...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 3
West And East Coasts As one passes from the west of England to the east one is struck by one important feature at least, apart from the difference in the character of the coast, the one rocky and ele...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 4
Composite Types Of Seaside Vegetation The title of this section may seem paradoxical compared with the last. But whilst the conditions of vegetation are limited to certain types, the types met with u...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 5
Modern Character Of Sea-Coast Vegetation The sand and shingle cast up by the agency of the sea is of purely modern origin. Marine deposits in fact belong to the latest geological period, the recent o...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 6
The Sandy Coasts, Muddy Estuaries, Rocky Coasts The first zone is made up of sandy coasts, muddy estuaries, rocky coasts, and sea cliffs. Of the plants here described in detail the bulk grow on sandy...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 7
The Salt Marsh The salt marsh is as a rule protected from the sea by a shingle beach, or dune, or sandy bank, or line of cliffs, but usually one or other of the former. It consists of low-lying meado...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 8
The Habits Of Sea-Coast Plants The special factors of the maritime habitats cause the plants in each zone to have marked characteristics. Generally the sandy coast vegetation is composed of fleshy he...
-Section IV. The Sea-Coast. Part 9
The Flowering Seasons Of Maritime Plants Maritime plants labour under disadvantages. They are subjected to continual wind-force and exposure, and where sea mists are constant, a reduction in temperat...
-Hints And Notes
Sea Holly, Samphire, Absinth, Centaury, Sea Plantain, Sea Club Rush, Marram Grass, Crested Dog's Tail Grass, Seaside Manna Grass, Rushy Wheat Grass, Lyme Grass, and these continue in flower till Augus...
-Hints And Notes. Continued
Dispersal Of Seaside Plants The special character of the maritime habitats of plants naturally affects dispersal of seeds of plants. One feature to be noticed is the spot-bound character of many of...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XVIII
1. Wood Anemone (Anemone nemorosa, L.). 2. Goldielocks (Ranunculus auricomus, L.). 3. Green Hellebore (Helleborus viridis, L.). 4. Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris, L.). 5. Sweet Violet (Viola odorata,...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses
In this section we have a group of shade-loving plants or Hylo-phytes. Each plant is influenced by the juxtaposition of other plants, and so the woodland plants are bound together. In extended form a ...
-Wood Anemone Or Wind Flower (Anemone Nemorosa, L.)
So far this has not been found in any deposit earlier than the recent. It is a plant of the Arctic and Cold Temperate Zones, found in Arctic Europe generally, W. Siberia, and in North America. It is g...
-Tennyson, Northern Farmer (Old Style)
The plant is called Darn-grass in Scotland because it is said to give rise to a disease called Darn or black water, causing dysentery among cattle, a notion also held in Sweden. Their fragile blossom...
-Goldielocks (Ranunculus Auricomus, L.)
No deposits have as yet yielded achenes of this plant. It is distributed over the Arctic and Cool Temperate Zones, in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, to the Himalayas. Goldielocks is absent from Monmou...
-Green Hellebore (Helleborus Viridis, L.)
No seeds of the Green Hellebore have been found in a fossil condition. It is a plant of the Warm Temperate Zone of W. and Central Europe, ranging from Holland southwards, but is not found in Russia. I...
-Columbine (Aquilegia Vulgaris, L.)
This beautiful plant has not been found in any early deposits. It ranges throughout the Northern Warm Temperate Zone in Europe, Morocco, the Canaries, Siberia, and Asia as far as the west part of the ...
-Columbine (Aquilegia Vulgaris, L.). Continued
The Sweet Violet is generally social in habit, many plants being produced around an older one yearly by the loose procumbent stems which are put forth from the axils of the terminal rosettes, the runn...
-Red Campion (Lychnis Dioica, L.)
This plant has been found in Interglacial, late Glacial, Neolithic, and lacustrine deposits. To-day it is found in the Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe to the Caucasus, Siberia up to Lake B...
-Lime Or Linden (Tilia Vulgaris, Hayne)
This tree has not been found fossil in Britain, but in the Pine and Oak Zones in S. Sweden. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe and the Caucasus. The Common Lime, as is suggested by its ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XIX
1. Lime (Tilia vulgaris, Hayne). 2. Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.). 3. Holly (Ilex Aquifolium, L.). 4. Wild Cherry (Primus Cerasus, L.). 5. Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella, L.). 6. White Beam (...
-Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella, L.)
Seeds have been found in late Glacial beds at Edinburgh, and in Neolithic beds there and in Essex. The North and Arctic Temperate Zones describe its limit, the plant occurring in Arctic Europe, North ...
-Holly (Ilex Aquifolium, L.)
Interglacial beds in Sussex, Neolithic beds in Essex have yielded evidence of the antiquity of the Holly. It is found in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe from South Norway to Turkey and the Cauca...
-Wild Cherry (Prunus Cerasus, L.)
There is no trace of this in early Glacial beds. It is found in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, eastward to the Himalayas, in the Azores, and Canaries. In Great Britain it is found in Cornwall,...
-Wild Strawberry (Fragaria Vesca, L.)
The soft nature of the fruits of this wild plant, in spite of the harder seeds, has prevented them from being preserved as fossils. The present distribution is limited to Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia...
-White Beam (Pyrus Aria, Ehrh.)
Fruits of White Beam have been found in Preglacial beds at Pake-field in Suffolk. It grows on Roman ruins at Silchester. To-day it is a typical member of the flora of the North Temperate Zone, found i...
-Mountain Ash (Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh.)
In Flintshire fruits have been discovered in beds of Neolithic age, proving that this is an ancient species. The Northern Temperate Zone is its home, and it is found in Europe, Madeira, N. and W. Asia...
-Key To Plate XX
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XX
1. Mountain Ash (Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh.). 2. Rosebay (Epilobium angustifolium, L.). 3. Enchanter's Nightshade (Ciraea Lutetiana, L. ). 4. Sanicle (Sanicula europcea, L.). 5. Angelica (Angelica sylve...
-Rosebay (Epilobium Angustifolium, L.)
The charming Rosebay, known in our gardens as well as the fields, is found in the Temperate and Arctic parts of Europe at the present day (there are no earlier records), in N. and W. Asia, as far east...
-Enchanter's Nightshade (Circsea Lutetiana, L.)
This woodland wild flower is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, Western Asia as far east as the Himalayas, and in temperate America, and there are no earlier records. In ...
-Sanicle (Sanicula Europaea, L.)
Wood Sanicle is widely dispersed, its recent distribution being Europe and N. Africa. It is found in all the counties of Great Britain except Peebles, the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the North of ...
-Angelica (Angelica Sylvestris, L.)
At West Wittering in Sussex this plant has been found in beds of Interglacial age, when the rigour of the Glacial period was much modified by a milder interlude. It is found to-day in the North Temper...
-Ivy (Hedera Helix, L.)
This is an ancient plant found in Interglacial and Neolithic beds. The present distribution is Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia as far east as the Himalayas, in the North Temperate Zone. Ivy is found in eve...
-Wayfaring Tree (Viburnum Lantana, L.)
This small tree is represented in early deposits in Interglacial beds at West Wittering in Sussex. Its recent distribution is limited to the North Temperate Zone from Belgium southwards, and North Afr...
-Key To Plate XXI
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XXI
1. Wayfaring Tree ( Viburnum Lantana, L.). 2. Honeysuckle (Lonicera Periclymenum, L.). 3. Woodruff (As-perula odorata, L. ). 4. Primrose (Primula vulgaris, Huds.). 5. Wood Loosestrife (Lysimachia ne...
-Honeysuckle (Lonicera Periclymenum, L.)
This aromatic, sweet-flowered climber is found in Europe, in recent beds, not earlier, and N. Africa, its distribution being confined to the North Temperate Zone of to-day. It is found in every part o...
-Woodruff (Asperula Odorata, L.)
This charming flower spreads its sweet odour of new-mown hay over the countries of the North Temperate Zone, in Europe, North Africa, Siberia, and Western Asia. It is not known earlier than the presen...
-Primrose (Primula Vulgaris, Huds.)
A general favourite, common and widespread, its universal popularity bids fair to cause its entire disappearance from some districts, thanks to hawkers. It may be an ancient plant, but only its presen...
-Wood Loosestrife (Lysimachia Nemorum, L.)
This little woodland flower is local but widespread, and known throughout the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, but not in Prussia, Greece, and Turkey. No early records are extant. The Wood Loosestri...
-Small Periwinkle (Vinca Minor, L.)
The blue flowers of this choice plant adorn the countryside in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, South of Denmark generally, but not in Greece, and W. Asia. In Great Britain it is found in the Penin...
-Lungwort (Pulmonaria Officinalis, L.)
Not being native in this country, Lungwort is not found in any early deposits. It is a member of the Northern Temperate Flora of Europe. It is not an indigenous plant, and is regarded by Watson as an ...
-Key To Plate XXII
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XXII
1. Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis, L.). 2. Wood Forget-me-not (Myosolis sylvatica, Hoffm.). 3. Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea, L.). 4. Marjoram (Origanum vulgare, L.). 5. Wood Betony (Slachys offici...
-Wood Forget-Me-Not (Myosotis Sylvatica, Hoffm.)
Though no species of this genus have yet been found in England in ancient deposits, they are known from Gothland, Sweden. In Arctic Europe, the Canaries, Siberia, Dahuria, and West Asia, or the North ...
-Foxglove (Digitalis Purpurea, L.)
The Foxglove is distributed throughout West Europe in the N. Temperate Zone. It is unknown in early deposits. In Great Britain it is absent in Cambridge, Hunts, Northants, E. Gloucs, S. Lincs, Mid Lan...
-Marjoram (Origanum Vulgare, L.)
As a woodland species of Northern and Arctic regions one would almost expect to find evidence that this plant is an ancient one, but so far it has not been forthcoming. It is found throughout Arctic E...
-Wood Betony (Stachys Officinalis, Trev.)
Wood Betony is found throughout the Temperate Northern Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and W. Siberia, but has not been met with in early deposits. In Great Britain it grows in the Peninsula, Channel, Tham...
-Yellow Archangel (Lamium Galeobdolon, Crantz)
As with the other Dead Nettles there is no trace of this plant in ancient deposits. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe and West Siberia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula, C...
-Wood Sage (Teucrium Scorodonia, L.)
This is a recent species, in the absence of ancient records, found in the North Temperate Zone to-day, in Europe generally except in Russia, and in N. Africa. In Great Britain it grows everywhere exce...
-Key To Plate XXIII
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XXIII
1. Wood Sage (Teucrium Scorodonia, L.). 2. Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides, L.). 3. Dog's Mercury (Mercuirialis perennis, L.). 4. Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra, Huds.). 5. Oak (Quercus Robur, L.). 6. B...
-Wood Spurge (Euphorbia Amygdaloides, L.)
Southern plant as it is, this Spurge is found in Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Suffolk. It ranges to-day in the North Temperate Zone from Holland southwards, and in West Asia. In Great Britain it is ...
-Dog's Mercury (Mercurialis Perennis, L.)
This common hedgerow plant is found in Interglacial beds in Sussex, and Neolithic beds in Essex and Edinburgh. To-day it is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe and N. Africa. In Great Britain it ...
-Wych Elm (Ulmus Glabra, Huds. (Montana, Stokes))
This is an ancient tree, remains being found in the Preglacial beds at Happisburgh, Suffolk, and in Interglacial beds at Grays, Essex. It now occurs in Europe and in Siberia, and is generally distribu...
-Oak (Quercus Robur, L.)
The Oak is an ancient tree found in Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Suffolk, and also Interglacial and Neolithic beds. To-day it is found in the Arctic and N. Temperate Zones from the Atlas, Taurus, an...
-Beech (Fagus Sylvatica, L.)
Though doubts have been expressed as to the antiquity of the Beech as a British tree there can be no reason for suspicion as to its being native here, for it is found in Preglacial beds at Happisburgh...
-Aspen (Populus Tremula, L.)
Traces of the Aspen have been discovered in Calcareous Tufa of Neolithic age in Flints. It is found in the Arctic and N. Temperate Zones in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, and N. Asia. In Great Britain it i...
-Key To Plate XXIV
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses Plate XXIV
1. Aspen (Populus tremula, L.). 2. Tway-blade (Listera ovata, Br.). 3. Bee Orchis (Ophrys apifera, Huds.). 4. Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis, L.). 5. Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria majalis, L.). 6. Ga...
-Tway-Blade (Listera Ovata, Br.)
This delicate orchid has preserved no record for us of its antiquity. It is, however, an Arctic plant found in the N. Temperate and Arctic regions, in Arctic Europe, and Siberia. In Great Britain it g...
-Bee Orchis (Ophrys Apifera, Huds.)
As a more or less southern type we find no record of its occurrence earlier than the present day. It ranges in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe from Belgium southwards, and in N. Africa. In Great Brita...
-Snowdrop (Galanthus Nivalis, L.)
It would be both interesting, and surprising, if the Snowdrop occurred in Glacial times in Britain, but we have no record, and it is found to-day in Europe south of Holland, and W. Asia. It has been r...
-Garlic (Allium Ursinum, L.)
The distribution of this beautiful but strong-smelling liliaceous plant is quite modern, being the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, except Greece and N. Asia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula...
-Bluebell (Scilla Non-Scripta, Hoffm. And Link.)
The Bluebell is apparently quite a recent plant found to-day in the N. Temperate Zone in West Europe, south of Belgium to Italy. It is common to every part of Great Britain from Caithness southwards t...
-Section VI - Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges
In making any botanical survey of a country or district one has to consider that certain associations are natural, while others are artificial. If it were possible altogether to say how much of a give...
-General View Of Roadside
Of these wayside flowers we have included about forty-four, deeming; it wiser to give rather fuller attention to this section from its easy accessibility, and the variety of wild flowers that may be f...
-Traveller's Joy (Clematis Vitalba, L.)
This plant is found in Interglacial beds at Stoke Newington as well as in Palaeolithic deposits. It ranges in Europe, south of Holland, N. Africa, W. Asia, or in the Warm Temperate Zone. In Great Brit...
-Key To Plate XXV
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXV
1. Traveller's Joy (Clematis Vitalba, L.). 2. Barberry (Herberts vulgaris, L.). 3. Winter Cress (Barbarea vulgaris, Ait.). 4. Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Scop.). 5. Sauce Alone (Sisymbrium...
-Barberry (Berberis Vulgaris, L.)
Our knowledge of this plant begins with recent times. It is an occupant of the Warm Temperate Zone, occurring in Europe, temperate Asia, N. Africa, and has been introduced into the United States. It i...
-Winter Cress (Barbarea Vulgaris, Ait.)
In deposits containing remains of recent plants as seeds no trace has as yet been found of this plant. It is widespread, occurring in the Arctic and Temperate Zone, in Arctic Europe, Asia, the Himalay...
-Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium Officinale, Scop.)
As yet no traces of this plant have been found in seed-bearing deposits. It is found throughout the Warm Temperate region in Europe and W. Asia. It has been introduced into the United States. Though c...
-Sauce Alone (Sisymbrium Alliaria. Scop.)
There are no deposits from which this is known in a fossil state in the British Isles. It is a plant which is found in the Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, Temperate West Asia, as far as the Hi...
-Greater Stitchwort (Stellaria Holostea, L.)
This plant has been found in Interglacial beds in Great Britain. It is distributed throughout the Temperate Zone in Europe and Western Asia. The Greater Stitchwort is found in every English, Scotch, a...
-Perforate St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum, L.)
This common plant has been found in Preglacial beds in Suffolk, Interglacial beds in Sussex, and in Neolithic beds in Edinburgh. At the present time it is at home in the North Temperate Zone in Arctic...
-Key To Plate XXVI
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXVI
1. Perforate St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum, L.). 2. Herb Robert (Geranium Robertianum, L.). 3. Spindle Wood (Euonymus europieus, L.). 4. Tufted Vetch (Vicia Cracca, L.). 5. Meadow Vetchling ...
-Wound, Cammock, Herb John, St. John's Wort, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch And Heal
Leaves boiled in wine were supposed to cure and heal up wounds. Perhaps also the perforations were thought to resemble wounds, when by Doctrine of Signatures the plant would in the older days therefor...
-Herb Robert (Geranium Robertianum, L.)
None of the seed-bearing beds have produced seeds of Herb Robert as yet. The North Temperate and Arctic Zones form the limit of its range in Arctic Europe, North Africa, Siberia, Western Asia, as far ...
-Spindle Wood (Euonymus Europaeus, L.)
No trace of this small tree has been found in Glacial or other beds. It is distributed throughout Europe as far east as the Caucasus, and in North Africa, and West Siberia. In Great Britain it is abse...
-Tufted Vetch (Vicia Cracca, L.)
Tufted Vetch appears to-day (not earlier than the present epoch) in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones, in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, India, and Greenland. It is ubiquitous in Grea...
-Meadow Vetchling (Lathyrus Pratensis, L.)
The recent distribution, which is all we have knowledge of so far of Meadow Vetchling, shows that it is confined to the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia as far as t...
-Blackthorn (Prunus Spinosa, L.)
Preglacial, Interglacial, and Neolithic beds have yielded evidence of the early occurrence of this plant in Britain. In its present distribution it is confined to Europe, but the Bullace is found in A...
-Bramble (Rubus Fruticosus (Rusticanus, Merc.))
This plant is known in Preglacial, Interglacial, Neolithic, and Roman beds (at Silchester, for instance). It is a member of the North Temperate Zone, found in Central and South Europe. Out of 112 vice...
-Key To Plate XXVII
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXVII
1. Bramble (Rubus rusticanus, Merc). 2. Barren Strawberry (I'otentilla sterilis, Garcke). 3. Dog Rose (Rosa canina, L.). 4. Crab Apple (Pyrus Malus, L.). 5. Hawthorn (Cratcegus Oxyacantha, L.). 6. B...
-Barren Strawberry (Potentilla Sterilis, Garcke)
The present distribution in the North Temperate Zone of Europe and N. Africa is all we know of this plant. In England and Wales it is generally distributed, but it does not occur in South Lincs, Mid L...
-Dog Rose (Rosa Canina, L.)
The forms found in early deposits do not approach R. canina, but a species with nearly round fruits. The present distribution is Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, or part of the North Temperate Zone. The Co...
-King Henry IV. (Part I)
The canker blooms have full as deep a dye As the perfumed tincture of the rose. The name Canker refers to the fruit, and the galls caused by Rhodites rosce. Some people used to think a scratch fro...
-Crab Apple (Pyrus Malus, L.)
Not a trace of this plant has been found where fruits of Mountain Ash have been found. It is a northern temperate plant, occurring Generally throughout Europe, Western Asia, as far east as the Himalay...
-Hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha, L.)
Widespread and common, it is not unnatural to find this plant is represented in Preglacial, Interglacial, and Neolithic deposits. It is confined to the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N....
-Bryony (Bryonia Dioica, Jacq.)
South of Denmark in Europe, in N. Africa, and W. Asia, that is to say, the North Temperate Zone, is the limit of the Bryony to-day, its earlier history not being known. In Great Britain it is local, b...
-Hemlock (Conium Maculatum, L.)
Hemlock, in spite of its poisonous nature, is widely distributed, being found (to-day) throughout the North Temperate Zone, in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, and it has been introduced in N. America. It ...
-Key To Plate XXVIII
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXVIII
1. Hemlock (Conium maculatum, L.). 2. Cow-parsnip (Heracleum Sphondylium, L.). 3. Hedge Parsley (Caucalis Anthriscus, Huds.). 4. Dogwood (Cornus sanguined, L.). 5 Moschatel (Adoxa Moschatellina, L.)...
-Cow-Parsnip (Heracleum Sphondylium, L.)
With its characteristic and conspicuous seeds it is not surprising that the Cow Parsnip has been found in Interglacial beds at Pakefield, Suffolk, and in Late Glacial beds at Twickenham, Middlesex; li...
-Hogweed (Heracleum Sphondylium, L.)
Photo. Stanley Crook The fruits split apart when ripe, and they are winged, and thus aided in dispersal by the wind, and, being semi-detached when ripe, they are easily blown away. Hogweed grows in ...
-Hedge Parsley (Caucalis Anthriscus, Huds.)
Found along every hedgerow, this common member of the Um-belliferae is known from its present distribution (entirely) to be limited to the North Temperate Zone, where it is found in Europe, North Afri...
-Moschatel (Adoxa Moschatellina, L.)
Quite a modern flower, so far as is known, Moschatel is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Asia, Himalayas, and in east and west North America. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsu...
-Elder (Sambucus Nigra, L.)
Commonly associated with human dwellings and activities, Elder occurs in deposits of Interglacial, late Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman age. In the North Temperate Zone it is distributed to-day in Europ...
-Fruit Elder (Sambucus Nigra, L.)
It was believed to drive away evil spirits in Germany, and after sunset wreaths of Elder are hung up on Good Friday as charms against lightning. Branches were used in May festivals. Sir John Maunde-vi...
-Cleavers (Galium Aparine, L.)
This common well-known hedge plant can boast of some antiquity, for it is found in Neolithic beds at Casewick. It is found in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones, moreover, at the present time, in Ar...
-Key To Plate XXIX
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXIX
1. Cleavers (Galium aparine, L.). 2. Teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris, Huds.). 3. Hoary Ragwort (Senecio eructfolius, L.). 4. Nipplewort (Lapsana communis, I,.). 5. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior, L.). 6. Great...
-Teasel (Dipsacus Sylvestris, Huds.)
This handsome plant is found to-day and not earlier in the North Temperate Zone in Europe and West Asia. In Great Britain it occurs in the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn provinces, and...
-Hoary Ragwort (Senecio Erucifolius, L.)
This species is found in the North Temperate Zone to-day to the South of Gothland, and in N. and W. Asia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula, Channel, Thames, Anglia, and Severn provinces; ...
-Nipplewort (Lapsana Communis, L.)
Every hedgerow has its complement of Nipplewort, growing in rows, and it is evident that it is truly native, for it is found in Pre-glacial beds in Suffolk, Interglacial beds in Sussex, and Neolithic ...
-Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, L.)
The Ash is an ancient tree, having been met with in Interglacial beds in Herts and Neolithic beds in Essex. Its range to-day is the North Temperate Zone of Europe except Greece and N. Africa. In Great...
-Great Bindweed (Calystegia Sepium, Br.)
Though a northern plant there is no evidence that this species is ancient, its present range being the Northern and Southern Temperate Zones in Europe, Siberia, N. Africa, temperate N. and S. America,...
-Red Bartsia (Bartsia Odontites, Huds.)
This ericetal plant has been found in the Clyde Beds at Garvel Park, of Late Glacial age. Its present distribution is the N. Temperate Zone of Europe, N. Asia, N. Africa, and the Himalayas. It is foun...
-Key To Plate XXX
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXX
1. Red Bartsia (Bartsia Odontites, Huds.). 2. Wood Basil (Clinopodium vulgare, L.). 3. Ground Ivy (Nepeta hederacea, Trev.). 4. Bugle (Ajuga reptans, L.). 5. Spurge Laurel (Daphne Lanreola, L.). 6. ...
-Wood Basil (Clinopodium Vulgare, L.)
Wood Basil is a southern plant not found in early deposits. It is confined to the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, as far east as Japan, and the Himalayas. It is wild in C...
-Ground Ivy (Nepeta Hederacea, Trev.)
The present distribution of Ground Ivy is the North Temperate Zone in Europe, Siberia, Western Asia, as far east as the Himalayas, and in America it is an introduced plant. It is not found with any ot...
-Bugle (Ajuga Reptans, L.)
As a marsh plant to a great extent Bugle occurs as we should expect in Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic deposits. It is found to-day throughout Europe generally. In Great Britain Bugle grows ...
-Spurge Laurel (Daphne Laureola, L.)
A southern type, Spurge Laurel is not represented in fossil seed-bearing deposits. It is found to-day in Europe in the N. Temperate Zone, south of Belgium, except in Russia and Greece, and in N. Afric...
-Common Elm (Ulmus Campestris, L. = U. Sativa, Mill U. Surculosa, Stokes)
No trace of the Common Elm has been found in ancient plant beds, though this cannot be said of the Wych Elm. The latter is thought to be native, the former not. The Common Elm does not usually set per...
-Nettle (Urtica Dioica, L.)
Ubiquitous and common, the Nettle is also ancient, being found in Interglacial beds at Hoxne, Suffolk, and in Late Glacial beds also at the same place. It is found in the N. Temperate and Arctic regio...
-Key To Plate XXXI
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges Plate XXXI
1. Nettle (Urtica dioica, L.). 2. Black Bryony ( Tamils communis, L.). 3. Lords and Ladies (Arum maculatum, L.). Photo. B. Hanley - Nettle (urtica Dioica, L.) The flowers are in axillary panicle...
-Black Bryony (Tamus Communis, L.)
The present distribution of Black Bryony is the North Temperate Zone in Europe, south of Belgium, N. Africa, to Asia, and it is unknown in ancient deposits. In Great Britain it is found throughout the...
-Some General Hints And Notes - Section V. Woods And Copses
The Density Of The Woods An outstanding feature of a wood or forest, especially in its natural state, is its dense character. It is for this reason that one resorts to it, for its cool and shady char...
-Woods And Copses. Part 2
Coldness Of The Woods A condition that regulates the distribution of plants is the amount of heat available. This is little liable to vary in open meadows and pastures within several degrees of latit...
-Woods And Copses. Part 3
Effect Of Tree-Felling On Rainfall When trees are felled, not only is the shade which they afford at once lost and sunlight able therefore to penetrate near to the surface, but the removal of the tru...
-Woods And Copses. Part 4
Woodlands The Origin Of Many Fruit Trees, Etc The origin of many of the fruit trees of this country is wrapt in obscurity. It is certain, however, that some, such as the Cherry, were introduced from ...
-Woods And Copses. Part 5
Animal Life Of The Wood In all types of vegetation there is an intimate connection between the plant and the animal life, but the woodlands are the especial resort of many types of animal life. The d...
-Woods And Copses. Part 6
Woodland Habitats And Associations Habitats in general may be wet or dry, rocky or not, upland or lowland. The wettest habitats (especially E. Anglia) are afforded by the Alder-Willow associations, w...
-Woods And Copses. Part 7
Flowering Seasons In The Woods The shade conditions in a woodland have a marked effect upon the periods of flowering. There are thus, apart from the general seasons of flowering in May, June, and Jul...
-Woods And Copses. Part 8
Life Duration Of Woodland Plants As a rule, shade plants are perennial, whilst the annuals and the biennials are to be found amongst the sun plants. A feature of the woods, dominated by the tree type...
-Woods And Copses. Part 9
Soil And The Woodlands The influence of soil is well shown in the case of woodland plants in the predilection of the several types of dominant tree for a particular kind of soil. But the ground flora...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges
Accessibility Of The Roadside One of the features that the roadsides possess in common with meadows and pastures, or fields, for the botanist commencing to study plants in the field, is their accessi...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 2
The Preservation Of The Roadsides Our English roadsides have been noted for their beauty; and this is a subject for praise well-earned in many a district still. But there are factors that are disturb...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 3
Dispersal By Roads As the media for traffic of all kinds it is not to be wondered at that roads afford one of the greatest means of dispersal of plants. And though this is obvious if one thinks about...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 4
Gate-Posts, Gateways, Bridges, Stone-Heaps, Etc The continuity of the greensward or the hedgerow on a highway is sooner or later broken by gateway, bridge, and stone-heap, or some other equally welco...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 5
Roadside Habitats Though a roadside appears to present extremely uniform conditions at first sight, in reality there is a good deal of diversity. A solitary bush by the wayside may form exactly the h...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 6
Effect Upon Habit The tree types and hedge or scrub of a roadside may be continuous or discontinuous. In the former case, if the two sides of the road are equally allowed to attain their full develop...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 7
Effect Upon Height The continuity or otherwise of the trees and scrub in the hedgerow has a marked effect upon the rest of the roadside flora. Much depends upon the direction of the road, and the rel...
-Section VI - Roadsides And Hedges. Part 8
The Dispersal Of Seeds Of Roadside Plants The linear nature of a roadside, and its boundary on either side by hedgerows, places a certain restriction upon wayside plants so far as the dispersal of se...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXII
I. Dyer's Weed or Weld (Reseda Luteola, L.). 2. Rock Rose (Helianthemum Chamaecistus, Mill.). 3. Hairy Violet (Viola hirta, L.). 4. Musk Mallow (Malva moschata, L.). A New British Flora ...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places
Mountains and hills are essentially caused by the major folds in the crust. They exhibit, exposed at the surface more usually than not, the rocks themselves, upon which in the same way are based the s...
-Dyer's Weed Or Weld (Reseda Luteola, L.)
This plant has not been discovered in any of the early deposits. It is found to-day in the Warm Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and Western Asia, and is introduced in the United States. It is fou...
-Rock Rose (Helianthemum Chamaecistus, Mill.)
This plant is not found fossil in any deposits. It is found in Arctic Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. In Great Britain it is absent from S. Somerset, Middlesex, Radnor, Merioneth, Cheshire, Mi...
-Hairy Violet (Viola Hirta, L.)
As with the Sweet Violet no fossil seeds of this species have been found. It is confined to the cold Temperate Zone, in Europe, N. and W. Asia, extending as far as N.-W. India. It is absent in Wales f...
-Musk Mallow (Malva Moschata, L.)
The Musk Mallow is not found fossil in any deposit. It is a member of the flora of the North Temperate Zone, found in Europe eastward to Lithuania, and it has been introduced into the United States. T...
-Yellow Balsam (Impatiens Noli-Me-Tangere, L.)
A delicate plant and scarce in this country, Touch-me-not has apparently not been preserved in any seed-bearing beds. It is confined to the Northern Cold Temperate Zone, and is distributed sparingly t...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXIII
I. Yellow Balsam (Impatiens noli-me-tangere, L.). 2. Rest Harrow (Ononis spinosa, L.). 3. Hare's Foot Trefoil (Trifolium arvense, L.). 4. Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis Vulneraria, L.). Yellow Balsam is f...
-Rest Harrow (Ononis Spinosa, L.)
Like most leguminous plants included in this work this is not represented amongst the Early Glacial floras. It is a plant of the North Temperate Zone found in Europe, West Asia, North Africa. In Great...
-Hare's Foot Trefoil (Trifolium Arvense, L.)
Hare's Foot Trefoil is unknown in any ancient deposits in Britain. A member of the flora of the North Temperate Zone it is found in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, and is introduced in America. In ...
-Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis Vulneraria, L.)
The recent distribution (of which alone anything is known) of this plant is circumscribed by the North Temperate and the Arctic Zones of Arctic Europe, North Africa, Western Asia. It is not found in G...
-Yellow Mountain Oxytropis (Oxytropis Campestris)
There is no trace of this plant in early seed-bearing beds. It is a member of the flora of the North Temperate and Arctic Zone, of Arctic and Alpine Europe, Siberia, and America. In Great Britain it i...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXIV
I. Yellow Mountain Oxytropis (Oxytropis campestris, D.C. ). 2. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia, Scop.). 3. Dropwort (Spiraea Filipendula, L.). 4. Oak-leaved Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala, L.). ...
-Dropwort (Spiraea Filipendula, L.)
This plant is quite unrepresented at present in early deposits. It is found to-day in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, North Asia. In Great Britain it is absent in N. Devon, S. Som...
-Oak-Leaved Mountain Avens (Dryas Octopetala, L.)
Remains of this rare but interesting plant are found in Late Glacial beds in Edinburgh and Perth. It is found in the Arctic and Alpine regions of the North Temperate and Arctic Zones. In Great Britain...
-Salad Burnet (Poterium Sanguisorba, L.)
Those who have searched for this plant have failed as yet to meet with seeds in Glacial or other beds. The distribution to-day shows that it is a plant of the N. Temperate Zone found in Europe, N. Afr...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXV
I. Salad Burnet (Polerium Sanguisorba, L.). 2. Field Scabious (Scabiosa arvensis, L.). 3. Ploughman's Spikenard (Inula squarrosa, Bernh.). 4. Cotton Thistle (Onopordon Acanthium, L.). Salad Burnet ...
-Field Scabious (Scabiosa Arvensis, L.)
Though found at the present day in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones, in Arctic Europe, Siberia, North Africa, there is no earlier trace of this plant as there is in the case of Devil's Bit Scab...
-Ploughman's Spikenard (Inula Squarrosa, Bernh.)
Local but well dispersed, Ploughman's Spikenard is found at the present day in Europe from Denmark southwards and Western Asia, but not in any early deposits. In Great Britain it is found in the Penin...
-Cotton Thistle (Onopordon Acanthium, L.)
The present distribution of this plant is Europe and Siberia, and it is merely an introduction in N. America. There is no evidence as to its occurrence in early deposits. In Great Britain in the Penin...
-Autumn Gentian (Gentiana Amarella, L.)
One of the Arctic types of plants, there is, nevertheless, no evidence of the occurrence of this plant in early deposits. Its present distribution is the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Eur...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXVI
I. Autumn Gentian (Gentiana Amarella, L.). 2. Field Gentian (Gentiana campestris, L. 3. Wild Thyme (Thymus Serpyllum, L.). 4. Clary (Salvia Verbenaca, L.). One of the typical upland plants, the aut...
-Field Gentian (Gentiana Campestris, L.)
This beautiful flower is found on the hillier parts throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe (but not in Turkey) and W. Siberia. It is unknown so far in early deposits. In Great Britain ...
-Wild Thyme (Thymus Serpyllum, L.)
Like other Arctic plants, Wild Thyme is an ancient species, found in Late Glacial deposits at Greenock. It is distributed in the Arctic and Temperate regions in Arctic Europe, Siberia, Dahuria, W. Asi...
-Clary (Salvia Verbenaca, L,)
This rather local plant is one of the southern forms which are found in the North Temperate Zone, in Europe south of Denmark, N. Africa, and Western Asia. It is not found in any ancient deposits. In G...
-Sheep's Sorrel (Rumex Acetosella, L.)
This sand-loving plant is also Arctic, and finds a place in the Pre-glacial deposits of Norfolk, and Interglacial beds at Hoxne, Suffolk. It is found at the present day in the N. Temperate and Arctic ...
-Flowers Of The Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places Plate XXXVII
I. Sheep's Sorrel (Rumex Acetosella, L.). 2. Box (Buxus sempervirens, L.). 3. Musk Orchid (Herminium Monorchis, Br.). 4. Fragrant Orchis (Habenaria conopsea, Benth.). 5. Sheep's Fescue (Festuca ovin...
-Box (Buxus Sempervirens, L.)
There is no trace of this rare upland shrub in any early deposits in Great Britain. It is found from Belgium southward in Europe and in N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, as far east as the W. Himalayas, in t...
-Musk Orchid (Herminium Monorchis, Br.)
In spite of its distribution to-day as an Arctic plant in Temperate and Arctic Europe, except Spain, Siberia, and the Himalayas, there is no record of this Orchid in early deposits with others of its ...
-Fragrant Orchis (Habenaria Conopsea, Benth.)
This pleasant-scented Orchid is another Arctic plant, also a member of the chalk flora in England, of which no early record appears. It is found to-day in N. Temperate and Arctic Europe, in Siberia, D...
-Sheep's Fescue (Festuca Ovina, L.)
This upland grass is widespread, occurring at the present day in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, Himalayas, N. and S. America, and the mountains of Australasia. Sheep's Fescue gr...
-Section VIII - Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Ditches, And Wet Places Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Ditches, And Wet Places
The vegetation of the land is of one type, that of the water of another. This physical distinction, indeed, has a marked influence upon the forms of plants. Those that grow in water are aquatic or Hyd...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XXXVIII
I. Meadow Rue (Thalictrum flavum, L.). 2. Water Fennel (Ranunculus trichophyllus, Chaix). 3. White Water Lily (Castalia alba, Wood). 4. Yellow Water Lily (Nymphaea lutea, L.). 5. Water Cress (Radicu...
-Meadow Rue (Thalictrum Flavum, L.)
This species is found in the Cromer Forest Bed (Preglacial), in Interglacial beds, as well as in Roman deposits at Silchester. At the present day it is found in Arctic Europe, Northern Asia, that is t...
-Water Fennel (Ranunculus Trichophyllus, Chaix.)
Seeds of Batrachian Ranunculi, which come under the old aggregate Ranunculus aquatilis, have been found in some deposits, such as Pre-glacial, Early Glacial, Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic ...
-White Water Lily (Castalia Alba, Wood)
Seeds of the White Water Lily occur in Interglacial beds and recent alluvium. It is found in the Arctic and North Temperate Zone in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia to Kashmir, and it is found...
-A Typical Floating-Leaf Association
Photos. L. R. J. Horn - White Water Lily (Castaha Alba, Wood), With Water Buttercup Note how the flower is raised above the surface of the water, and how the leaves have the margin turned up. The ...
-Yellow Water Lily (Nymphaea Lutea, L.)
Fruits of the Yellow Water Lily are known from deposits of Pre-glacial, Interglacial, Neolithic, and Postglacial age. The Warm Temperate Zone is the limit of its distribution in Europe, Temperate Asia...
-Water Cress (Radicula Nasturtium Aquaticum, Rendle And Britten Nasturtium Officinale)
Common and widespread as this plant is, it is not found in any deposits in which seeds of recent plants are preserved. It is almost cosmopolitan, occurring in Europe, West Asia, North Africa, and it h...
-Great Yellow Water Cress (Radicula Amphibia, Druce)
This has not been found in a fossil condition. It is a native of the Warm Temperate Zone, found in Europe, North Africa, and Temperate Asia. In England it is found in Somerset, Wilts, Dorset, Sussex, ...
-Great Chickweed (Stellaria Aquatica, Scop.)
Remains of this plant have been found in the Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Interglacial beds in Sussex, testifying to its antiquity. It is to-day found in the Temperate Northern Zone in Europe, North...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XXXIX
I. Great Chickweed (Stellaria aquatica, Scop.). 2. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria, L.). 3. Great Hairy Willow Herb (Epilobium hirsutum, L.). 4. Marsh Bedstraw (Galium palustre, L.). 5. Hemp A...
-Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria, L.)
This choice and gay-flowered plant is found to-day (not earlier) in the Temperate, Northern, and Arctic regions, Arctic Europe, and in Australia. It is found in Great Britain throughout the Peninsula,...
-Great Hairy Willow Herb (Epilobium Hirsutum, L.)
The present distribution of this plant, which is the limit of our knowledge so far as to its antiquity and range, is the North Temperate Zone, where it is found in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, W. Asia,...
-Marsh Bedstraw (Galium Palustre, L.)
Found in the Neolithic deposits in Renfrewshire, Marsh Bedstraw is distributed to-day throughout the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, Persia, Greenland. Water Bed...
-Hemp Agrimony (Eupatorium Cannabinum, L.)
Hemp Agrimony can lay good claim to being a native British species if only from its discovery in Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic beds. To-day it is found throughout the Temperate Northern Zo...
-Fleabane (Pulicaria Dysenterica, Gray)
The present distribution of this plant, which is common, is Europe from Denmark southwards, and North Africa, but it is not known in deposits earlier than the present day. In Great Britain it is found...
-Three-Lobed Butterbur (Bidens Tripartita. L.)
This common aquatic plant, like other members of pratal and paludal formations, is found in Preglacial, Interglacial, and Late Glacial beds. In Arctic Europe, North Africa, West Asia, N.W. India, N. A...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XL
I. Three-lobed Butterbur (Bidens tripartita, L.). 2. Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara, L.). 3. Butterbur (Petasites ova/us, Hill; officinalis, Maench). 4. .Marsh Ragwort (Senecio aquatius, Hill). 5. Mar...
-Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara, L.)
This is an ancient plant, having been met with at Edinburgh in beds of Neolithic age. It is found in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, as far east as th...
-Butterbur (Petasites Officinalis, Moench)
Unlike its near neighbour Coltsfoot, Butterbur is not found in early deposits. It is found in the North Temperate Zone to-day in Europe, North Africa, N. and W. Asia. It is found in every part also of...
-Marsh Ragwort (Senecio Aquaticus, Hill)
Fruits of this common paludal type have been found amongst others in Interglacial deposits at West Wittering, Sussex. It is found in the North Temperate Zone to-day in Europe and Siberia. It grows in ...
-Marsh Thistle (Cnicus Palustris, Willd.)
As in the case of other typical marsh plants this plant has been found in Interglacial and Neolithic deposits. It is found to-day in Arctic Europe and Siberia. The Marsh Thistle is known in all parts ...
-Great Yellow Loosestrife (Lysimachia Vulgaris, L.)
This is a marsh plant, not yet found in Glacial plant beds in the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, North Africa, N. Asia, and it is represented in Australia by a nearly allied spe...
-Moneywort (Lysimachia Nummularia, L.)
Common in damp places, and known as Creeping Jenny in the garden, Moneywort is a plant of the Northern Temperate Zone, found in Europe generally, and a garden escape only in the Northern United States...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XLI
1. Moneywort (Lysimachia Nunimularia, L.). 2. Scorpion Grass (Myosotis scorpioides, L.). 3. Water Figwort (Scrophularia aquatica, L.). 4. Musk (Mimulus Langsdorffii, Donn.). 5. Brooklime (Veronica B...
-Scorpion Grass (Myosotis Scorpioides, L.)
Though this is one of the Arctic types it has not been found in association with those found in ancient deposits so far. In the North Temperate and Arctic Zones it is found in Arctic Europe, Siberia, ...
-Water Figwort (Scrophularia Aquatica, L.)
South of Denmark in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, eastward to the Himalayas, marks the present range of this species in the N. Temperate Zone. It has not been found in any early deposits. In Grea...
-Musk (Mimulus Langsdorffii, Donn.)
This is an American plant of comparatively recent introduction into Europe (1812), and a member of the N. Temperate flora. Like Elodea canadensis, also introduced from America, it is now found in all ...
-Brooklime (Veronica Beccabunga, L.)
The Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, N. and W. Asia, and the Himalayas is the home of this plant, which is not known in any early deposits. Brooklime is found in all parts of Great Bri...
-Water Mint (Mentha Aquatica, L.)
Like numerous other aquatic types, Water Mint finds a place in the ancient floras preserved to us. It is represented in Preglacial beds at Pakefield, Suffolk; Interglacial and Roman beds at Silchester...
-Gipsywort (Lycopus Europaeus, L.)
Gipsywort being a paludal plant is found in Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Suffolk; Interglacial, late Glacial beds, in Suffolk; and Neolithic beds. Its distribution lies in the Temperate regions in E...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XLII
I. Gipsywort (Lycopus europaeus, L. ). 2. Skull-cap (Scutellaria galericulata, L.). 3. Amphibious Knotgrass (Polygonum amphibium, L.). 4. Crack Willow (Salix fragilis, L.). 5. Frogbit (Hydrocharis m...
-Skull-Cap (Scutellaria Galericulata, L.)
This is another marsh plant which is one of the Arctic species not found in early deposits as yet. It is found to-day in the Arctic and Temperate Zones in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, N. Asia, as far eas...
-Amphibious Knotgrass (Polygonum Amphibium, L.)
Though it is unknown in any ancient deposits in Britain this ubiquitous plant is known in S. Sweden. At the present time it is found in the N. Temperate and Arctic regions. It is found everywhere in G...
-Crack Willow (Salix Fragilis, L.)
Though a marsh plant, there are no traces of this tree in ancient deposits. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. and W. Asia, and has been introduced in N. America, but is said not to be...
-Frogbit (Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae, L.)
Aquatic but delicate, no evidence of its occurrence in early beds is forthcoming. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe and N. Asia. In Great Britain it does not grow in Cornwall or N. Devon;...
-Yellow Flag (Iris Pseudacorus, L.)
This marsh plant is found in the Neolithic deposits at Crossness, and Fife. To-day it is found in Europe, N. Africa, and Siberia in the N. Temperate Zone. In Great Britain the Yellow Flag is universal...
-Snake's-Head Fritillary (Fritillaria Meleagris, L.)
This choice wild flower has much the same range as other Liliaceous flowers, the North Temperate Zone of Europe (except Greece and Turkey), and West Asia, and is not known before the present day. In G...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XLIII
1. Snake's-head Fritillary (Fritillaria Meleagris, L.). 2. Reed-mace (Typha latifolia, L.). 3. Bur-reed (Sparganium ramosum, Curt.). 4. Sweet Flag (Acorns Calamus, L.). 5. Duckweed (Lemna minor, L.)...
-Reed-Mace (Typha Latifolia, L.)
A common and familiar plant, associated with pond and aquatic life generally, our present knowledge of its range and history is derived from the modern distribution of the Reed-mace, which is the N. T...
-Bur-Reed (Sparganium Ramosum (Curt.) = S. Erectum, L.)
As a typical aquatic form this plant is found in Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Suffolk, Interglacial beds at West Wittering, Sussex, late Glacial and Neolithic beds. It is found to-day in the N. Temp...
-Sweet Flag (Acorus Calamus, L.)
The distribution of this rather local aquatic plant, which is known only from its modern occurrence, is N. Temperate Europe (except Greece), N. Asia, eastward to the Himalayas, N. America. In Great Br...
-Duckweed (Lemna Minor, L.)
Although Duckweed is almost ubiquitous in its distribution it is not found, as can hardly perhaps be expected from its small size and fragile nature, in early plant-beds. In Great Britain it is found ...
-Water Plantain (Alisma Plantago-Aquatica, L.)
As one of the Arctic plants, addicted to an aquatic habitat, one might expect to find this in the Glacial plant-beds, and it is found in Preglacial, Interglacial, Late Glacial, and Neolithic deposits....
-Arrow-Head (Sagittaria Sagittifolia, L.)
Remains of this typical aquatic and arctic type are found in Inter-glacial beds at West Wittering in Sussex. To-day it is found in Arctic Europe (except Greece), N. Asia, N. W. India in the North Temp...
-Flowers Of The Lakes And Wet Places Plate XLIV
1. Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia, L.). 2. Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellalus, L.). 3. Bulrush (Scirpus lacustris, L.). 4. Wood Club Rush (Sarpus sylvaticus, L.). 5. Reed (Phragmites communis, T...
-Flowering Rush (Butomus Umbellatus, L.)
This beautiful species, entirely aquatic, is found to-day in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. and W. Asia, N.W. India. It is unknown in early plant beds. In Great Britain it is absent in Cornwal...
-Bulrush (Scirpus Lacustris, L.)
Remains of the arctic Bulrush have been found in Preglacial beds in Norfolk and Suffolk, in Early Glacial beds in Norfolk, in Inter-glacial and Late Glacial beds, as well as in Neolithic deposits. Its...
-Wood Club Rush (Scirpus Sylvaticus, L.)
This is unrepresented in ancient plant beds. It is found in the North Temperate region in Europe (except Greece), North Asia, and Temperate North America. In Great Britain it is absent in the Peninsul...
-Reed (Phragmites Communis, Trin.)
The Reed may be said to be ubiquitous in both time and space, for it is found in Britain alone in Preglacial beds everywhere, Inter-glacial beds in Hants, Sussex, Lincs, Neolithic beds in the Thames V...
-Section IX - Flowers Of Waste Places, Gardens, Refuse - Heaps, Village Greens, Farmyards, Etc
Man during his operations in one direction or another, by agriculture, horticulture, building operations, quarrying, railway or canal transit, causes considerable disturbance in the balance of nature ...
-Greater Celandine (Chelidonium Majus, L.)
The seeds of this plant which have been discovered in Interglacial deposits are both characteristic and in good condition. It ranges from Arctic Europe, W. Asia, W. Persia, and has been introduced in ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Plate XLV
1. Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus, L.). 2. Shepherd's Purse (Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Medic). 3. Mouse-ear Chickweed (Cerastium vulgatum. I,.). 4. Common or Marsh Mallow (Malva sylvestris, L.)...
-Shepherd's Purse (Capsella Bursa-Pastoris, Medic.)
Unlike flax, which is equally a weed of cultivation, Shepherd's Purse is not known in any early seed-bearing deposits. It is distributed throughout all Temperate and Arctic Europe, North Africa, and A...
-Mouse-Ear Chickweed (Cerastium Vulgatum, L.)
This plant has not been found fossil so far. It is distributed to-day throughout Europe from the Arctic circle, southwards, in N. and W. Asia, to Spitzbergen, the Himalayas, and N. Africa, and has bee...
-Stork's Bill (Erodium Cicutarium, L'Herit.)
The very characteristic seeds of this plant are unknown in a fossil state. The Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, Siberia, Western Asia, as far east as N.W. India, is the limit of this p...
-Melilot (Melilotus Officinalis, Lam.)
In spite of its numerous pods this plant is not found in any ancient deposits. The North Temperate Zone is its principal region, the plant being found in Europe, East and Western Asia, Thibet, and it ...
-Goutweed (Aegopodium Podagraria, L.)
This plant is confined, so far as its present-day distribution is concerned, to the North Temperate Zone, being found in Europe, except Spain, and in Western Asia. In Great Britain it is absent from P...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Plate XLVI
1. Goutweed (Aegopodium Podagraria, L.). 2. Stinking Mayweed (Anthemis Cotula, L.). 3. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare, L.). 4. Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris, L.). 5. Burdock (Arctium minus, Bernh.). 6. Musk...
-Stinking Mayweed (Anthemis Cotula, L.)
A familiar cornfield pest (to the farmer at least), Stinking Mayweed is found in Europe, North Africa, Siberia, West Asia, and has been introduced into North America. It is unknown in early deposits. ...
-Tansy (Tanacetum Vulgare, L.)
Usually associated with cultivation or gardens, this plant has been met with in Early Glacial beds at Beeston, Norfolk, at the base of the Arctic freshwater bed. It is found in the North Temperate and...
-Groundsel (Senecio Vulgaris, L.)
Common and widespread, but obviously connected with the pursuit of agriculture, Groundsel is not represented in ancient deposits. In the North Temperate and Arctic Zones it is found in Arctic Europe a...
-Burdock (Arctium Minus, Bernh.)
Hardy and dominant, this plant has not been recognized in the early deposits preceding the present day. It is confined to the Temperate Zone, and found in Europe, and N. and W. Asia. It is introduced...
-Musk Thistle (Carduus Nutans, L.)
This plant is found throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, and has been introduced into North America. It is unknown in any early beds. In Great Britain it occurs throughou...
-Spear Thistle (Cnicus Lanceolatus, Willd.)
Unlike the Musk Thistle the Spear Thistle is found in Interglacial beds in Sussex, and Neolithic beds at Edinburgh and in Fife. It is now a plant of the North Temperate Zone, found in Europe, N. Afric...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Plate XLVII
I. Spear Thistle (Cnicus lanceolaus, Willd.). 2. Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum, Gaertn.). 3. Chicory (Cichorium Intybus, L.). 4. Hawk's Heard (Crepis virens, L.). 5. Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum off...
-Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum, Gaertn.)
The distribution of Milk Thistle is limited to Europe from Holland southwards. It is unknown in early deposits. It is, moreover, not a native of Britain, and in Scotland and Ireland is quite rare. Th...
-Chicory (Cichorium Intybus, L.)
Like other cultivated or casual plants, our knowledge of its range and age is derived from its present-day distribution in Europe. N. Africa, Siberia, N.W. India. In America it is only an introduction...
-Hawk's Beard (Crepis Virens, L. = C. Capillaris, Wallr.)
This common Composite is known from Neolithic beds at Redhill, near Edinburgh, so there can be no doubt as to its being native. It is found in the North Temperate Zone from Denmark southwards in Europ...
-Viper's Bugloss (Echium Vulgare, L.)
This plant is found in the Temperate Northern Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and W. Siberia, and has been introduced in N. America. There is no trace of it in any early deposits. In Great Britain it is no...
-Bittersweet (Solanum Dulcamara, L.)
Poisonous and rather addicted to artificial habitats, this plant has none the less an ancient history, being found in Preglacial beds in Suffolk and Interglacial beds in Sussex. At the present day it ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Plate XLVIII
1 Bittersweet (Solanm Dulcamara, L.). 2. Deadly Nightshade (Atropa Belladonna, L.). 3. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger, L.). 4. Mullein (Verbascum Thapsus, L.). 5. Creeping Toadflax (Linaria repens, Mill....
-Deadly Nightshade (Atropa Belladonna, L.)
This is one of those southern plants which rarely appear in the deposits containing seeds of ancient plants. The present range of Deadly Nightshade in the N. Temperate Zone is south of Denmark in Euro...
-Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger, L.)
Like Deadly Nightshade, this southern plant is of quite modern origin apparently. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N.W. Asia, and India. In Great Britain it grows in the P...
-Mullein (Verbascum Thapsus, L.)
In Interglacial beds at West Wittering, traces of Mullein have been discovered, thus establishing its ancient origin. It is known to-day in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. and W. Asia, as far as t...
-Creeping Toadflax (Linaria Repens, Mill.)
This pretty flower is found in West Europe in the N. Temperate Zone to-day, but is not known in any early deposits. In Great Britain it is found in West Cornwall, S. Devon, N. Somerset, I. of Wight, S...
-Common Toadflax (Linaria Vulgaris, Mill.)
This plant is not an ancient one apparently, though its range to-day is that of the northern plants, being found in the N. Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, and W. Asia. It is introduced in...
-Purple Dead Nettle (Lamium Purpureum, L.)
The present distribution of this common plant is the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, the Canaries, Siberia, W. Asia, and it is introduced in North America. It is unknown in early deposits. In Great Brita...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Plate XLIX
I. Purple Dead Nettle (Lamium purpureum, L.). 2. White Dead Nettle (Lamium album, L.). 3. All good (Goosefoot) (Chenopodium album, L.). 4. Good King Henry (Chenopodium Bomus Henricus, L.). 5. Knotgr...
-White Dead Nettle (Lamium Album, L.)
Like Purple Dead Nettle the White Dead Nettle is modern, so far as we know, and is found to-day throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N. Asia, and is an introduced plant in N. Amer...
-All-Good (Goosefoot) (Chenopodium Album, L.)
This common waste-land species is another Arctic species not found in early deposits. It is found to-day in Arctic Europe and Temperate Asia, and is introduced in North America. It is found in every d...
-Good King Henry (Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, L.)
Mercury as it was called, once so commonly a kitchen-garden weed, or herb rather, has no record in the ancient past to indicate its more than recent origin. It is found to-day in the Temperate Norther...
-Knotgrass (Polygonum Aviculare, L.)
This ancient species is found in Interglacial beds in Hants and Sussex, Late Glacial, Neolithic beds at Edinburgh, Roman beds at Silchester. It is found to-day in Arctic and Temperate Europe, N. and W...
-Dairy Maid's Dock (Rumex Obtusifolius, L.)
Though not so distinctly a marsh plant as the Golden Dock, this species is found in Interglacial beds in Sussex and near London, in Late Glacial beds in the Isle of Man, and Neolithic beds in Edinburg...
-Wall Barley (Hordeum Murinum, L.)
Almost ubiquitous in some places, Wall Barley is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe from Scotland southward, and in North Africa. It is found in the whole of South Britain, but not in Brecon,...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places
The Effect Of Altitude Upon Plants For every successive rise in altitude of 300 ft. the temperature decreases by 1 F. Hence the effect of altitude upon plants in the first place is to drive the ...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places. Part 2
Prevalence Of Bare Rocks In Hilly Tracts One marked characteristic of upland areas is the preponderance at high altitudes of bare rock surfaces. Moreover, an outcrop where soft and hard rocks are con...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places. Part 3
Dry And Wet Hills Mountains upon the older granitic, siliceous, or schistose rocks that reach a considerable altitude are frequently the habitats of true moorland or bog plants. There are, in fact, u...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places. Part 4
The Exposure Of Hills The direction of the hills is an important factor, especially in relation to the prevailing winds, causing different effects upon different types of vegetation. Plants with the ...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places. Part 5
Ascending And Descending Types Owing to the differences in temperature, effect of wind, etc, between the lowland and upland regions, there are several types of plant groups which may be distinguished...
-Section VII - Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places. Part 6
Habits Of Hillside Plants The physical features of the habitat in the case of hills and dry pastures are as important as the other factors, such as climate, altitude, and soil. As a whole the tree ty...
-Flowering Seasons Of Hillside Plants
As a hill is ascended the temperature is lowered by 1 F. for each 300 ft. Hence the montane species of flowering plants require a longer period of sunny weather before the thermal constants deman...
-Flowering Seasons Of Hillside Plants. Continued
The Dispersal Of Seeds Of Hillside Plants The exposed nature of the uplands would at first sight appear to be a factor in the dispersal of hillside plants. As a matter of fact, upon the uplands there...
-Section VIII - Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places
Terrestrial And Aquatic Vegetation Water has a more uniform temperature than the soil, and thus aquatic vegetation is more or less constant, for the chief zones of latitude. But adaptation to an aqua...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 2
Zonal Character Of Aquatic Vegetation Aquatic vegetation shows a well-marked zona-tion or arrangement of different types in zones or parallel bands. This applies whatever be the character of the aqua...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 3
Altitude Of Aquatic Vegetation There are distinct zones of altitude of the different types of aquatic vegetation. The maritime vegetation or marine plants grow at sea-level. It is important to rememb...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 4
Lakes, Ponds, Pools, And Reservoirs Enclosed tracts of water are as a rule still waters. But there may be an inflowing and outflowing stream, regulated frequently by a sluice. The disturbance of such...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 5
Streams Streams may be either upland or lowland. The former are the beginnings of rivers, and form torrents, cascades, and waterfalls, in which chiefly ferns luxuriate, and lower cryptogams. In the l...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 6
Wet Places There are certain spots, usually low-lying, or hollows at higher altitudes, that preserve a type of vegetation which exhibits a marked difference to that of the surrounding higher and drie...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 7
The Height Of Water Plants The aquatic plants have different conditions to contend with in regard to the height to which they usually grow. A land plant, whether it be a shade plant or a sun plant, o...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 8
The Duration Of Aquatic Plants The great difference between land and water plants has an important effect upon the duration of the latter and their mode of seeding. It is much more difficult, in fac...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 9
The Dispersal Of Seeds In Aquatic Plants The aquatic character of the habitat introduces new features into the mode of dispersal of the seeds. The seeds of submerged and floating plants must in these...
-Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Ditches, And Wet Places. Part 10
Methods Of Survey The particular form of aquatic vegetation will at once determine the mode of survey. In a pond or lake the vegetation is generally concentric, hence the mapping must be done on such...
-Section IX - Waste Places
Artificial Or Natural Character Of Waste Places The term waste ground or waste places is capable of more than one meaning. There are comparatively natural types of waste land, which, although followi...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 2
Hedgerows, Etc, Near Villages, Boundaries Of Cultivated Tracts Taking first the areas immediately around the habitations of man, who is the chief agent in the introduction and dispersal of alien plan...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 3
Cart-Roads A cart-road is very similar to an ordinary roadside, along which, as has been shown (Section VI), a number of plants are dispersed by artificial agency. The highway, however, is regularly ...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 4
Stackyards And Farmyards As the storehouse of the crops, a stackyard is a centre of dispersal for the majority of agrestal plants, which grow up with the corn, and are cut with it, the seeds falling ...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 5
Allotments, Gardens, Etc Allotments and gardens are cultivated tracts which, however, have waste places contiguous to them, and the weeds in the garden are eradicated and turned out, unless they are ...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 6
The Height Of Waste-Ground Plants Growing under variable conditions as regards the habitat, and the mode of association of the components of each florula, waste-ground plants vary a great deal in the...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 7
The Duration Of Waste-Ground Plants Intimately connected as the flowering periods and duration of all plants are, as has been seen in the case of the groups of plants chosen to illustrate each habita...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 8
The Dispersal Of Seeds Of Waste-Ground Plants The diversity of habitats of waste-ground plants is perhaps correlated with the different modes of dispersal of the seeds. As a whole the habitats are no...
-Section IX - Waste Places. Part 9
Methods Of Survey Owing to the ephemeral character of waste ground there is not the same necessity to map exactly the vegetation of such tracts where plants vary from year to year, e.g. gardens, etc....









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