Connate

united around the stem.

Connective

a process connecting the cells of the anthers with the filament.

Connivent

uniting together.

Cordate

heart-shaped.

Coriaceous

leathery in texture.

Corm

a fleshy, solid, bulb-like base of a stem.

Corolla

a whorl within the calyx, enclosing the stamens and stigma, made up of petals.

Cortex

the ground tissue enclosing the vascular tissue in a stem.

Corymb

a raceme in which the upper peduncles are shortened to form a flat-topped inflorescence.

Cosmopolitan

plants having a universal distribution.

Cotyledon

the seed-leaves, single in monocotyledons, double or paired in dicotyledons.

Crateriform

cup-shaped.

Crenate

with rounded teeth, scalloped.

Crenulate

with small rounded teeth.

Cross-fertilization

when pollen from the anthers of one flower is carried to the stigma of another, fertilization following.

Cross-pollination

the transfer of pollen from one flower to another.

Cruciform

arranged like a cross in opposite pairs.

Culm

the jointed hollow stems of Grasses, etc. Cuneate, wedge-shaped.

Cupule

the bract-like cup enclosing a nut, e.g. an acorn.

Cyme

a centrifugal inflorescence; the terminal flower is overtopped by lateral branches.

Deciduous

of leaves, falling off, not evergreen, or of flowers when petals drop.

Decumbent

prostrate, but ascending at the extremity.

Decurrent

when the blade of a leaf runs down the stem below the point of attachment.

Decussate

when opposite pairs of leaves are alternately at right angles.

Deflexed

turned down or backwards.

Dehiscence

the manner in which a fruit splits up or opens.

Denizen

apparently native, but likely to have been introduced by human agency.

Dentate

toothed, the teeth short, triangular.

Denticulate

finely toothed.

Depressed

flattened above.

Dichogamy

when anthers and stigma mature at different times.

Diffuse

widely branching.

Digitate

finger-like.

Dioecious

unisexual, the sexes on different plants, as in Willows.

Disk

(1) the central part of a capitulum; (2) the flattened part of the receptacle, bearing corolla, stamens, and carpels, e.g. in Acer.

Dissepiment

septum in an ovary.

Distichous

in two opposite rows.

Divaricate

spreading at an obtuse angle.

Divergence

the angle between the insertion of successive leaves on the stem.

Divided

deeply cut. Dominant, a species forming the strongest feature in a botanical association.

Drupe

I-celled succulent fruit with a hard stone which encloses a seed or kernel.

Duct

a tube formed by fusion or division of cells, a canal made of cells without division.

Ecology

the study of plants in their natural habitats, their association, and relation to the environment.

Emarginate

with a notch at the extremity.

Embryo

the young plant enclosed in the seed.

Embryo-sac

the large cell containing the ovum, and the embryo in the ovule.

Endemic

confined to a certain district or station.

Endophytic

living within the tissue of another plant.

Entire

untoothed.

Entomophilous

pollinated by insect agency.

Ephemeral

flowers that open for a few hours, or plants that produce several generations in one season.

Epigeal

growing above ground.

Epigynous

seated on the ovary.

Epiphytes

plants that grow on others but do not draw nourishment from them; i.e. not as parasites.

Equitant

folded around.

Ericetal

growing on heaths.

Exserted

projecting beyond a corolla.

Extrorse

when anthers open outwards, away from the centre.

Falcate

sickle-shaped.

Fasciation

when several stems are abnormally fused together.

Fasciculate

clustered in bundles.

Fastigiate

with parallel ascending branches.

Felted

covered with a soft felt.

Fertilization

fusion of the male gamete with the egg-cell; in Angiosperms follows on pollination, and is carried out by the agency of the pollen-tube.

Filament

the stalk of an anther.

Filiform

thread-like.

Fimbriate

with a fringe of fine teeth.

Fistular

hollow.

Flaccid

weak, limp.

Flexuose

wavy.

Flora

the aggregate constituent plants of a particular region.

Floret

a small flower borne in clusters or singly.

Flower

all the modified leaf-like processes which together combine to cause the reproduction of the plant, by the production of seeds from spores (or pollen-grains and embryo-sacs).

Flowering glume

the outer scale of a flower in Grasses, usually bearing an awn.

Follicle

a one-celled carpel, opening only down the ventral suture, and containing numerous small seeds.

Fruit

the seed-vessel, with seeds, and protective envelopes.

Fruticose

shrubby.

Fusiform

spindle-shaped.

Galeate

helmet-shaped.

Gall

an excrescence caused on stems and leaves, etc, by the laying of an insect's egg within the tissue, causing irritation, and producing in each species a characteristic growth, rendering it possible to indicate the gall insect from the gall formed.

Geotropism

a growth-curvature induced by gravity.

Germination

the growth of an embryo into a seedling.

Gibbous

swollen at one part or another.