This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is fields, moist waste places, and waysides. The habit is ascending, the stem branched, downy, with glands, the leaves smooth, broadly egg-shaped, stalkless, scalloped, the lower rounded. The flowers are small, pale-blue or white, many, in a long spike, the flower-stalks short and erect, the styles as long as the capsules. The latter are inversely egg-shaped, not so long as broad, smooth, the seeds small and plano-convex. The plant is 3-10 in. in height, and flowers from May to August or later, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is heathy places, heaths, moors, and hedgebanks and coppices in S.E. England. The habit is prostrate, with ascending branches, the plant being hairy, the leaves shortly stalked, coarsely toothed, elliptic. The flowers are pale-blue, in erect racemes, axillary spikes with many flowers, stalkless or nearly so, the flower-stalks erect. The style is very long. The capsule is inversely heart-shaped and notched, blunt at the tip, and longer than the oblong, linear sepals. The plant is 2-18 in. in height, flowering between May and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is pastures, hedge-banks, copses, etc. The habit is ascending, with slender branches, the whole plant being hairy and downy on opposite sides of the stem (not all round as in V. montana), the leaves nearly stalkless, egg-shaped to heart-shaped, deeply and coarsely toothed. The flowers are numerous, large, blue, in opposite racemes, with linear bracts less than the flower-stalks, with linear sepals. The capsule is inversely heart-shaped, deeply notched. The plant is 8-24 in. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is meadows and grassy ground. The habit is erect, the plant being a hemi-parasite on the roots of grasses, the stem round, simple, the whole plant clammy, the leaves stalkless, opposite, rough, with prominent nerves below, egg-shaped or oblong- lance-shaped, coarsely toothed. The flowers are yellow, glandular, in axils, distant, crowded above, the oblong-capsule downy, not so long as the calyx, with numerous seeds, granulate. The plant is 4-18 in. high, flowering from June to October, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is fields and cultivated ground. The habit is erect, the stem tall, with many branches, the leaves coarsely toothed, linear, lance-shaped. The flowers are yellow with violet spots, large, in a dense spike and numerous. The bracts are yellow with green points. The lobes of the upper lip of the corolla are oblong. The seeds have a broad wing. The plant is 6-18 in. in height, and flowers from June to August, being an annual, herbaceous plant, semi-parasitic on the roots of grasses.
The habitat of this plant is pastures, cornfields. The plant is gregarious, with simple stem or with few branches, the stem-leaves shorter, simple, smooth above, rough below. The flowers are few, yellow. The calyx in fruit blackish-violet. The corolla-tube lengthens during flowering, and in the absence of insects self-pollination takes place. The seeds are adapted to dispersal by the wind. The plant is 9-18 in. in height, flowering in June and July, and is an annual hemi-parasite.
The habitat of this plant is pastures. The habit is as in the Common Yellow Rattle, but the simple stem has many internodes, the leaves coarsely serrate, lance-shaped, narrow, the stem-leaves, with two or three leaves in the axils and intercalary branches. Otherwise it resembles the Common Yellow Rattle, having yellow flowers, being 9-18 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is an annual hemi-parasite.
This is a native, and found on mountain pastures, grassy ground, by stony footpaths in the north. The plant resembles the last, but has a shorter stem, with very short and numerous lower internodes, the intercalary internodes elongate, with many branches. The stem-leaves are very narrow, linear, and often bent back. The flowers are treacly-brown. The plant is 2-6 in. in height, and flowers in July and August, being an annual hemi-parasite.