This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is meadows and fields or upland marshy places. The root is made up of several rootlets in a bundle. The habit is erect, the stems finely furrowed, branched, the leaves linear, narrow, with lobes each side of a common stalk, with stalkless leaflets, with hairlike segments in whorls. The florets are white or pink, the general and partial involucres made up of many leaves. The fruit is egg-shaped, with prominent ridges. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is perennial and herbaceous.
The habitat of this plant is chalky fields. The Great Earth Nut has an erect habit, with a much-branched stem arising from a large, black, solitary tuber, with triangular 3-pinnate leaves, the primary segments stalked, linear. The flowers are white, the outer florets larger, there being many bracts in the general and partial involucres. The fruit is oblong, with a short fleshy disk above the ovary, and the styles are bent back. It is 2 ft. in height, the flowers opening in June, July, and it is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is fields and meadows, sandy and gravelly pastures, and woods. The Earth Nut has an erect habit, with a simple, slender, rounded, wavy stem, arising from a tuber about the size of a hazel nut. The radical leaves are on long stalks with triternate leaves. The few stem-leaves are deeply divided nearly to the base, with linear segments. There are no bracts or bracteoles. The florets are white, and form a wide flowerhead; the fruit is oval, with a long fleshy disk on the ovary, and short erect styles. The fruit is narrowly egg-shaped, the ridges not marked, with several vittae or oil stripes. The plant is 2-3 ft., or usually 18 in. in height. It flowers in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is meadows, banks, and marshy places. The habit is erect, the stem nearly solid, furrowed, arising from tuberous root fibres (beyond the middle), with radical leaves bipinnate, the lower leaves with broad small segments, the upper linear and entire. There are 6-12 rays in the compound umbel, which is flat, with white florets, the partial umbels close, involucre with many linear leaves; the fruit, rounded above, is sub-cylindrical with an enlarged corky base. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, and is in flower from June to August, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is meadows, pastures, commons, and damp places. The habit is erect, the stems being angular, solid, grooved, leafless above, with principally radical leaves, once or thrice pinnate, with opposite, linear leaflets, entire, or divided into three lobes. The flowers are pale-green, small, the involucre of 1-2 segments, the partial involucre of many, the fruit oblong, nearly round, the carpels bluntly winged, and ridged. The height of Pepper Saxifrage is 1-3 ft. It flowers in July, up till September, and is a herbaceous perennial.