I. Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliala, L.). 2. Bog Speedwell (Veronica scutellata, L.). 3. Marsh Red Rattle (Pedicularis palitstris, L.). 4. Bladderwort (Ulrictdaria vulgaris, L.). 5. Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris, L.).

I. Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliala, L.). 2. Bog Speedwell (Veronica scutellata, L.). 3. Marsh Red Rattle (Pedicularis palitstris, L.). 4. Bladderwort (Ulrictdaria vulgaris, L.). 5. Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris, L.).

The capsule is 5-valved and many-seeded, and opens below, allowing the seeds to fall out, and fall in the water to sink or float.

As an aquatic plant it is not dependent on soil, but as a marsh plant requires a peat soil.

Hottonia, Boerhaave, was named after Pierre Hotton, a professor at Leyden (d. 1709), and the second Latin name refers to its marshy habitat.

Water Violet is called Bog Featherfoil, Featherfoil, Water Gilli-flower, Water Milfoil, Water Yarrow. The first name is in reference to its feathery leaves.

The roots consist of white capillary fibres, which strike deep into the mud, and the leaves grow in tufts below the water, while just the upper part of the stem rises above it. Water Violet is attractive enough to be planted in ponds as an ornament.

Essential Specific Characters: 198. Hottonia palustris, L. - Flowering stem a scape, leafless, erect, leaves submerged, in whorls, pectinate, finely divided, flowers pink, lilac, whorled, in racemes. terminal, corolla salver-shaped.