This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is marshes, boggy moors, and heaths. The habit is the usual bulrush habit. There are no leaves. The plant is smaller than the next. The rootstock is creeping, with long stolons. The stem is round in section, finely furrowed, with few scales, thin and narrow. There is a short abrupt sheath below. The upper one is blunt. The lower glume is blunt, not so long as the spikelet. The anthers do not end in an apiculus. The nut is inversely ovate, 3-angled, finely furrowed, netted, pale, with a beak contracted below. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is barren turfy heaths and moors. The plant has the usual Rush habit. The stems are tufted (hence caespitosus), wiry, round in section, finely furrowed, erect, some barren. There is a short rootstock. The scales are overlapping, numerous, leafless, acute. The sheaths are short, awl-like below, the lower split, large, stout, rigid, the upper slender. The leaves are short. The spike is solitary, terminal, ovate, with few flowers. The spikelets are erect, chestnut-brown, shining. The lower 2 glumes are awned, and longer than the spikelet. There are 4-6 bristles. There are 3 long stigmas. The fruit is an oblong to inversely ovate brown nut, with a long narrow point, and a few erect teeth. The plant is 6-12 in. in height, and flowers from June to August. The plant is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is wet, sandy, and gravelly places. The stem is tufted, round, leafy, slender, rigid, round in section. The leaves are 1-2, narrow, channelled, short, bristle-like (hence setaceus). The spikelets are 1-3, terminal, small, stalkless, shorter than the lower bract, which appears as a continuation of the stem. The glumes are blunt, with a short point, brown, with white margins and a green keel, ovate. There are 2-2 stamens and 3 stigmas. The nuts are brown, broad, 3-angled, inversely ovate, longitudinally ribbed, and transversely striate. The plant is 3-6 in. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Kobresia caricina, Willd. (= K. bipartita, Dal. Tor.). - The habitat of this plant is alpine marshes, upland moors. The plant has the sedge habit. The stems are erect, densely tufted, rigid, round in section, leafy below. The rootstock is short. The leaves are wiry, bent-back, slender, not so long as the stem, grooved, the margins twisted. The spikes (4-5) are narrow, close, at the top of the stem, with 6-8 flowers. The spikelets are nearly in 2 rows, stalkless, cylindrical. The bracts are small. The glumes are rigid, ovate to oblong, blunt, pale-brown, the second of the lowest fertile, the lowest barren, the third male. Both flowers are male in the upper spikelets. The nut is pale, linear, with a beak. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering in August and September, and is a herbaceous perennial.