This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is dry and rocky places. The plant lias the erect habit, and is inversely pyramidal. The stem is solid, smooth or finely furrowed, sheathed below, rigid, zigzag, furrowed when dry, leafless, branched. The leaves are triangular, 3-4 times pinnate, 3-cleft, bluish-green, the leaflets roundish, acutely or bluntly lobed. The stipules are parallel with the leaf-stalk, with spreading or bent-back auricles. The branches are angular, ascending. The flowers are drooping, greenish-yellow, in a loose, branched panicle, with 4 yellow-green sepals. The anthers are apiculate. The achenes are fusiform, stalkless, elliptic to oblong, straight or swollen below, 8-10-ribbed, more or less flattened at the border. The plant is 3 in. to 2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is chalk downs, limestone pastures, etc. The habit is erect. The plant is silky. The rootstock is stout and woody. The leaves mature after flowering, and are 3 times divided nearly to the base, with linear segments. The involucral leaves are silky, stalkless, divided nearly to the base, with long, linear segments. The flowers are solitary, bell-shaped, drooping in bud, erect later, dull-purple, silky outside. The sepals are 6, erect, silky, petaloid. The flower-stalk lengthens after flowering. The outer stamens are yellow, reduced to glands, and may be reduced petals, the imperfect ones containing honey. The achenes have long, feathery tails. The plant is 5-8 in. high, flowering in April and May, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is hedgebanks and dry banks. The habit is erect. The root consists of short, egg-shaped knobs and fibres. The stoles are slender with small scales which give rise to a new plant. The stem is generally simple, slender, swollen below, silky, hairy, with tuberous offsets. The leaves are hairy, 3-foliolate. The radical leaves are 3-lobed, with 3-7 divisions. The stem-leaves are 1-2, with linear segments. The flowers are bright-yellow. The receptacle is smooth, oblong. The calyx is hairy, spreading. The flower-stalks are furrowed. The achenes form a head, and are hairy, flattened at the border, acute, dotted, oblong, cylindric, numerous, rounded, with an acute beak, rough, small. The plant is 4-12 in. high. It flowers in May, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is fields, banks, roadsides, cornfields, and dry banks. The habit is prostrate. The root is fibrous. The stems and branches are slender, spreading. The leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, 3-5-lobed, the lobes toothed, the upper leaves oblong, entire, or 3-lobed, with entire, deeply-cut lobes, the lowest entire. The flower-stalks are lateral, opposite a leaf or in the forks, furrowed. The flowers are yellow, with 3-5 small, narrow, oblong petals, the gland with a small scale. The calyx is erect at first, afterwards turned back. The receptacle is hairless. The achenes are small, rounded, with hooked tubercles. The styles are nearly straight, and short. The plant is 3-12 in. long, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous annual.