This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
(See also p. 99)
The habitat of this plant is fields, dry banks, sandy and gravelly places, waste places, clayey pastures, cloverfields, roadsides, woods, hedgebanks. The habit is erect. The stems are downy, few, rigid, branched. The leaves are linear, opposite, united below, downy, the lower blunt, the upper acute. The bracts are lance-shaped, downy, as long as the calyx, with awl-like tips. The flowers are red with dark dots, or rose with white dots, close, grouped, in loose cymes. The calyx-tube is cylindrical with many nerves, the calyx-scales lance-shaped, awl-like, downy. The petals are narrow, distant, toothed. The capsule is 4-valved above. The seeds are nearly flat one side, hollowed out, with a longitudinal keel. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is gravelly places. The plant is erect or much-branched. The plant is hairy and clammy. The lower leaves are spoon-shaped. The flowers are white or pink, in leafy racemes, the petals large, and scales small, entire, or divided into two nearly to the base. The calyx is membranous, with bristle-like teeth, and green, downy ribs. The capsule is egg-shaped on a bent-down flower-stalk, and is incompletely divided internally. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from June to October, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is dry places, limestone, chalky places, rocky places, walls. The habit is as in the last. The plant is downy. The root-stock is woody and branched. The stem is erect, clammy above, hairy. The radical leaves are spoon-shaped, oblong to lance-shaped, stalked, tufted. The stem-leaves are linear to lance-shaped, stalkless. The flowers are white or pink, in (hence nutans) drooping cymes. The branches are opposite, 3-flowered. The calyx is clammy, tubular, swollen in the middle, long, the teeth acute, membranous, with purple veins. The petals are divided into two nearly to the base, crowned, with linear, spreading lobes, narrow, hooded. The capsule is erect, exceeding and rupturing the calyx, longer than the carpophore. The scales are blunt. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is dry banks, calcareous places. The plant is small and sticky, has an erect stem, branched above the middle. The radical leaves are spoon-shaped, with long, linear stalks, the upper oblong. The flowers are in terminal, forked cymes, the petals notched, with branched veins. The sepals are lance-shaped, acute, with the borders and tips membranous. The upper bracts have a narrow, membranous border. The fruit-stalk is short, curved at the top, bent down from the base, at length erect. The capsule is curved upwards, longer than the calyx. The plant is 1-4 in. high, flowering in April and May, and is a herbaceous annual.