This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is dry pastures, bushy waste places, and calcareous soils. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, rounded, slender, furrowed, hairless or downy, naked. The root-stock is slender, hot, and acrid. The radical leaves are stalkless, arranged each side of a stalk. The leaflets are in 4-8 pairs, variable, toothed, lobed, the leaves sometimes nearly divided to the base, nearly round, the stem-leaves bipinnate, the lobes much narrower. The flowers are small, white, in a flat-topped umbel. The styles are shorter than the ovary. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is dry hilly pastures, waysides, and hedgerows. The habit is erect, with hollow, grooved, stout stems, the leaves large, with triangular leaves, tripinnate, with lance-shaped leaflets divided nearly to the base, whitish below, blotched above. The flowerheads are large with white florets with petals slightly bent in, the bracts lance-shaped. The fruit is linear, 1 in. long, with rough ridges, beaked, with slender, spreading styles. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering in May and June, and is perennial, herbaceous.
The habitat of this plant is chalk hills and pastures. The habit is erect, the rosette habit. The plant is hairless or slightly downy, covered below with the remains of decayed leaf-stalks. The stem is stout, solid, furrowed, with few branches. The leaves are twice pinnate, with lobes each side of a common stalk, the leaflets divided nearly to the base. The leaflets are stalkless, egg-shaped, lance-shaped, blunt-pointed, the lower crossing. The flowers are small, in rounded, terminal, convex umbels, with many downy rays, and nearly equal, awl-like, turned-back bracts, and bracteoles fringed with hairs. The calyx-teeth are awl-like, falling. The fruit is hairy, egg-shaped. The styles are slender, curved back. The plant is 4 in. to 2 ft. or more high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is hilly fields and dry pastures. The habit is tufted, erect, with rounded stems, with fibrous remains of decayed leaf-stalks at the base, the leaflets much divided, dark-green, with bristle-like segments and spreading, the leafstalk as long as the leaf-blade. The flowerhead is a many-raved umbel, with violet or yellow-white florets, the fruit brown, oblong, nearly round, the carpels with acute ridges, the seeds hollow ven-trally. The plant is from 6 in. to 1 1/2 ft. in height, and "flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is dry sunny banks, cornfields, etc. The habit is prostrate. The stem is spreading, slender, wavy, angled, solid. The upper leaves are 1-2 pinnate, the lower 2 pinnate, with lobes each side of a common stalk. The leaflets are divided nearly to the base, small. The flowers are small, regular, pink, in dense, stalkless, lateral, small, round umbels opposite a leaf-stalk. There is no general involucre. There are no bracts. The fruit has spreading, barbed bristles, hooked at the tip, egg-shaped, the inner tubercled, the outer with one or more carpels, with hooked spines. The styles are very short. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous annual.