This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is wet sandy places. The plant is stoloniferous. The rootstock is stout. The stem is 3-angled, tufted. The leaves are narrow, smooth, keeled. The sheaths are not fibrous. The spikelets are stout, close, erect. There are 2-4 males, 2-5 female, which are stalkless, oblong, cylindric, short and stout, male at the top, stalkless. The lower bract is slender, stiff, longer than the spike-let, and not sheathing, auricled. The fruit is ellipsoid, oblong, flattened, 3-5-veined, with a very short beak, brownish-green. The nut is longer than broad, narrowed into the beak, with a very short beak, lenticular, brown, dotted. The plant is 6-10 in. high, flowering in July and August, iind is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this sedge is banks of rivers, lakes, damp places, margins of stagnant pools, often in woods. The stem is stout, 3-sided, with rough angles. The plant is yellowish-green. The root-stock is tufted. The leaves are broad, flat, rough. The 3-6 fertile spikelets are cylindrical, spreading, dense-flowered, close, pale-green, drooping, long-stalked, thread-like, curved, the male spikelets solitary, slender, pale, sometimes with fertile flowers, all towards the top of the stem. The bracts overtop the stem, and are scarcely sheathing, leaflike. The glumes are yellowish-green, bristle-like, rough, swollen at the base, small, lance-shaped or awl-like. The awn is coarsely toothed. The fruit is spreading, ovoid to lance-shaped, oblong, narrow, ribbed, shining-green, with a long beak, which is deeply divided into 2, rigid, pungent. The nut is pale, 3-angled, elliptic. The style is persistent. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is river-banks and ditches, margins of streams, and wet places. It is a tall, stout plant, with a creeping rootstock, bearing stolons. The stems are 3-sided, rough on the angles, which are acute. The leaves are broad, bluish-green, erect, flat, the sheaths sometimes leafless, with filamentous edges. The male spikelets are stout, dark-brown, sometimes with fertile spikelets at the base, the glumes brown, blunt. The fertile spikelets are cylindrical, blunt, shortly-stalked. The glumes of the female spikelets are blunt-pointed. The anthers are apiculate. There are 2-3 stigmas. The fruit is ovoid, ribbed, longer than the glumes, which are lance-shaped and awned, 3-angled, narrowed to the beak, with acute angles, the upper part granulate. The nut is lenticular or 3-sided. The beak is short, with 2 teeth. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering between May and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is river-banks, ditches, river margins, and wet places. The plant is tall, stout, with a creeping, tufted rootstock. The stem is 3-sided, rough on the angles. The leaves are broad, flat, bluish-green, with the edges of the sheaths filamentous. The male spikelets are stout, 3-6, close, dark-brown, acute, with fertile spike lets at the base, the glumes acute. The anthers are long-pointed. The fertile spikelets are 4-6, cylindrical, acute, stalked, inclined, long, and stout, sometimes compound at the base or male above. The glumes are ovate to oblong, narrow, with brown margins and green midrib, and rough tip. The male spikelets have slender glumes. The fruit is erect to spreading, dull-green, narrowed to the cloven beak, with numerous close ribs, oblong, ovoid, longer than the glumes, convex both sides. The nut is pear-shaped, triangular, elliptic, 3-sided, yellow. The plant is 3-5 ft. in height, flowering in May, and is a herbaceous perennial.