This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is hedges, hedgebanks, and waste places. The habit is erect. The plant is strong-scented. The stem is downy, branched above, furrowed, panicled. The leaves are stalked, pinnate, light-green, with egg-shaped, blunt, cut lobes, deeply divided nearly to the base. The flowerheads are numerous, corymbose. The disk is yellow, the ray white or absent. The receptacle is hemispherical. The phyllaries are blunt, linear. The ligules are short and broad. The bracts have a membranous border, broad, ribbed, downy. The fruit is crowned with a short, jagged membrane, the disk cup-shaped. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is hedges, hedgebanks, waste places. The habit is erect, pyramidal. The plant is strong-scented. The stem is reddish, angled, grooved, branched, leafy. The leaves are broad, woolly, white below, dark-green above, deeply divided nearly to the base, the lobes broad, lance-shaped, long and narrow-pointed, cut and toothed, acute, the margins bent back. The leaf-stalk is auricled. The flowerheads are few, reddish, or yellowish-brown, or creamy-white, crowded, in short, erect panicles, egg-shaped, leafy, simple. The receptacle is hairless. The corollas of the ray florets are cylindrical, slender. The phyllaries are woolly. The plant is 1-4 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this, plant is hedgebanks, waysides, dry banks, and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is winged, the wings narrowed, wavy, cottony or downy above, the branches ascending. The leaves run down the stem below, are fringed with spines which serve as a protection, lance-shaped, cottony below or hairless, deeply divided nearly to the base, the lobes divided into 3 nearly to the base, toothed. The flowerheads are round, clustered, small, erect, the florets purple or white. The flower-stalks are leafy. The involucre is webbed, egg-shaped, the phyllaries linear, awllike, erect or ascending, slender, not contracted above the base. The fruit is pale, shining, furrowed. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous biennial or annual.
The habitat of this plant is dry banks, hedge-banks, dry sunny places, waste places on a stiff soil. The habit is erect. The plant is hairy with short, stiff, straight, curly or hooked hairs. The stem has irregularly spreading branches, and is stout and rough. The leaves are linear-lance-shaped, wavy, toothed, narrow, the lower stalked, the upper clasping. The flowerheads form a corjmb, and are solitary, terminal, on the stem and branches. The flower-stalks bear bracts. The florets are yellow. The outer phyllaries are narrow, loose, oblong, smooth at the border, with a bristly keel, and the involucre more or less bell-shaped. The fruit is not beaked, the pappus whitish. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering between July and September. It is a herbaceous biennial.