This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is mountainous districts, the margins of streams, etc. The stem is rigid, stout, and has scattered, stiff, white hairs below, glands and hairs above. The radical leaves are oblong, oval, with fine teeth, narrowed into short leaf-stalks, with few, stiff, scattered hairs below. The 3-7 stem-leaves are clasping, egg-shaped to lance-shaped. The panicle is corymbose. The 4-8 heads are large, blunt below. The dark phyllaries are rather blunt, except the inner, with hairs and glands. The ligules have a fringe of sparse hairs. The styles are livid. The plant flowers in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial, 1-3 ft. high.
This species occurs on grassy slopes, ledges of alpine cliffs, exposed stonv knolls on hill summits, on granite, mica-schist, hornblende, and slate, up to 1000 metres. The stem has long, soft hairs, woolly felt, and glands above. The radical leaves are inversely egg-shaped, spoon-shaped, bent back above, blunt, narrowed to the leaf-stalk, entire or slightly toothed, sparingly stiffly hairy above, with bulbous-based hairs below and on the margins. The stem-leaf is lance-shaped or strap-shaped, the upper ones bract-like. The heads are large, rounded below. The dark phyllaries are broad, the outer loose, acute, the inner linear, lance-shaped, with a long, narrow point, the innermost with a bristlelike point, with hairs and glands. The ligules are strongly stiffly hairy. The styles are yellow. The plant is 3-9 in. high, and flowers in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The stem of this species is shaggy, with white hairs, white felted, glandular above. The radical leaves are inversely lance-shaped, blunt, entire, the outer broader, rounded, with a blunt point above, the inner rather acute, shaggy, with long, white hairs. The heads are conical or narrowed below. The outer phyllaries are loose and broad, blunt, the inner linear, acute, with dense, long, white hairs. The ligules are stiffly hairy. The styles are yellow.
The habitat of this species is lofty mountains, precipitous escarpments, inaccessible crags, on mica-schist and granite. The plant is green, the stem i-headed, woolly- felted, shaggy, glandular. The radical leaves are yellowish, lance-shaped or inversely so, acute, narrowed to the leaf-stalk, entire or toothed, cut, with sharp acute teeth, with blunt points, hairy both sides. The leaf-stalks are broadly-winged. The stem-leaves are single or absent, or 2-3, linear, lance-shaped. The solitary heads, or 2 or more, are rounded, bell-shaped. The outer phyllaries are loose, short, blunt, the inner linear, with a long narrow point, or narrow acute, with shaggy hair and glands. The ligules are stiffly hairy. The styles are dark-livid or black. The plant is 6-15 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.