This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
This plant has long been in cultivation in England and established in many places, old walls, waste ground, near towns. The habit is erect. The plant is smooth. The stem is leafy. The leaves are linear, lance-shaped, scattered, the radical leaves irregularly in fours. The flowers are purple, in long, narrow racemes. The sepals are linear, not so long as the capsule. The corolla has a long, incurved spur, 2-3 times as long as the flower-stalks. The lips may be purple, the flower yellow otherwise. The seeds are angular, netted. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.
This plant is an alien, which has become naturalized in many places, as on old walls and calcareous cliffs, being an escape from gardens, where it has been long cultivated generally. The habit is erect. The plant is shrubby, branched, smooth below, glandular, downy above. The stems are stout and woody. The leaves are oblong, linear, lance-shaped, opposite or alternate, devoid of hairs. The flowers are purple, white, yellow or crimson, in dense racemes, glandular, downy, with ovate, narrow-pointed bracts. The ultimate flower-stalks are erect. The sepals are ovate, unequal, blunt, shorter than the corolla. The palate is yellow, the upper lip divided into two nearly to the base. The spur is hairy within. The capsule is glandular. The seeds are black or brown, longitudinally ribbed, prickly, oblong, ovoid. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is lofty Scottish mountains, springs, and rills. The habit is prostrate, then erect, much as in V. serpyllifolia. The stem is scarcely rooting, simple, except below, glandular, downy above. The leaves are elliptic, egg-shaped, entire or toothed. The lower leaves are smaller. The flowers are dark-blue, in a dense, raceme-like corymb, few, hairy with spreading hairs. The sepals are narrow, more or less acute, half as long as the capsule, which is obscurely notched, on short, erect stalks. The bracts are alternate. The capsule is inversely egg-shaped. The seeds are plano-convex. The style is short. The upper part of the stem and calyx is dingy blue. The plant is 3-10 in. high, flowering- in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is the highest Scottish alps, exposed alpine rocks. The habit is prostrate. The plant is more or less devoid of hairs. The stem is woody, with numerous branches, ascending, with leafy barren shoots. The leaves are oval, elliptic, the lower smaller, inversely ovate, the upper oblong, coarsely toothed to the middle, leathery, the teeth few or none. The flowers are large, bright-blue, in more or less corymb-like racemes, with few flowers, downy, hairy, without glands, the hairs crisped. The bracts are more or less opposite. The sepals are linear to oblong, blunt, not so long as the capsule. The flower-stalks are long and erect. The ultimate flower-stalks are stiff. The style is short and slender. The capsule is oblong, ovate, narrow-pointed, the valves bifid, the seeds nearly flat. The plant is 2-4 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is alpine pastures, subalpine meadows, and wet banks. The habit is creeping. The plant is a hemi-parasite, glandular, downy, the rootstock woody. The stem is simple, erect, square or round, leafy. The leaves are opposite, stalkless, egg-shaped, bluntly toothed, the upper heart-shaped, clasping, leathery, blunt. The bracts are purplish. The flowers are bluish-purple, in a short, dense, leafy spike, downy. The calyx is purplish, clammy, with egg-shaped to lance-shaped lobes. The lips of the glandular corolla are small. The anthers project, and are hairy and bearded. The capsule is longer than the sepals. The seeds are small, numerous, winged. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is Scottish mountain pastures, corries. The habit is erect, the stem simple, densely hairy, with no black striae, the internodes more or less long. The stem-leaves are shorter at the internodes, lance-shaped, the lower leaves egg-shaped, blunt. The bracts are green and rough. The calyx is downy, the corolla dark treacly-yellow. The plant is 2-4 in. in height, flowering in July and August, and is an annual hemi-parasite.
The habitat of this plant is meadows and pastures, lofty Scottish mountains. The plant is of Scottish type, found in 6 vice-counties. It is 2-4 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is an annual hemi-parasite. The habit is erect. The stem is unbranched, hairy, not striate. The leaves are narrow, linear. The calyx is downy. The corolla is dark-yellow.