This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is copses in wet places, shady places, damp woods, and river banks. The habit is erect, the stem being slender, glandular, hairy, leafy, nearly simple, scarcely winged, the rootstock tuberous. The leaves hardly run down the stem, the radical leaves being long-stalked, egg-shaped, lance-shaped, the stem-leaves lance-shaped. The flowers are yellowish-white, small. The anthers are twice as long as the stalks. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, and flowers from May to July, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is copses and thickets. The habit is prostrate. The barren shoots are creeping, the flowering stems rigid, erect, simple or branched, the branches rough. The leaves are lance-shaped, narrow, nearly stalkless, acute, roughly hairy, the hairs above closely pressed, bulbous. The flowers are bright blue, large, few, in terminal cymes, the corolla longer than the calyx, with large, leafy bracts. There are no scales in the throat of the corolla, but five downy folds. The nutlets are smooth, shining, polished, white, round. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, and flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is plantations, woods, copses, thickets, and it is frequent in cottage gardens. The habit is the rosette habit. The leaves are spotted, blotched with pale green, egg-shaped, lance-shaped, heart-shaped, long-stalked, the upper stalkless, oblong. The flowers are in a terminal, forked cyme, pale purple, then pink. The throat of the corolla is usually smooth. The plant is 12-18 in. high, flowering from April to June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods in the South of England. The habit is erect. The rootstock is short and stout. The stem is hairy, brittle. The radical leaves are stalked, spotted, pale green, lance-shaped, narrow, the stem-leaves stalkless, smaller, oblong, acute, half-clasping. The flowers are pink, then blue, in a short cyme, bent inwards, with leafy bracts. The flower-stalks are slender. The lobes of the calyx are lance-shaped, enlarged in fruit. The corolla is hairy inside. The nutlets are black and smooth. The plant is 6-15 in. in height, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods, copses, shady situations, and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is rough with short, straight, spreading hairs with a bulbous base. The plant is more slender and green than the common form. The leaves are thin, semi-transparent, slightly hairy or smooth, shining above, acute, rough below, the lower leaves oblong, long-stalked, and the stem-leaves are stalkless, narrowed below, half-clasping. The flowers are red then blue. The sepals are linear, long in fruit. The nutlets are not thickened on the margin, and the marginal spines are the longest. It is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous biennial.